Hi, Bob the Canadian here. As you learn English, you'll want to sound as much like a native English speaker as you can. One of the best ways to sound more like a native speaker is to use reductions.
Reductions are when we take sentences like "I want to eat ice cream," and we reduce it to "I wanna eat ice cream." You'll notice that we take the two words "want to," and we kind of squish them together into a new word, which isn't really a word, "wanna." So, we say things like "I want to eat ice cream," but when we say them out loud, we say, "I wanna eat ice cream."
縮讀字就是將這句「我想要（want to）吃冰淇淋」簡化成「我想要（wanna）吃冰淇淋」。你會發現我們將這兩個字「want to」稍微壓扁，變成一個新的字「wanna」，但它其實不算真正的單字。那我們會講這樣的句子「我想要（want to）吃冰淇淋」，但當我們大聲講出來時會變成「我想要（wanna）吃冰淇淋」。
In this English lesson, I will teach you 10 English reductions that will help you sound more like a native English speaker.
Wanna / Gonna / Dunno
想要 / 將要 / 不知道
So, the next reduction I wanna teach you takes the words "let me." And it kind of squishes them into a new word, "lemme." I know it looks kind of funny, but we do say this. We take sentences like "Let me show you how to do that," and we compress it into "Lemme show you how to do that."
下一個我想教大家的縮讀字是從「let me」來的。它們稍微被壓扁，變成一個新單字「lemme」。我知道看起來有點好笑，但我們真的會這樣講。我們會講這樣的句子「讓我（Let me）跟你講怎麼做」，然後壓縮成「讓我（Lemme）跟你講怎麼做」。
The next reduction I want to teach you takes the words "going to," and it squishes them into the word "gonna." Again, I do wanna remind you that the reductions themselves aren't real words. They're just how we say it out loud when we say it quickly. So, I could say that "Tonight, I am going to eat ice cream," and the reduced form would be "Tonight, I'm gonna eat ice cream." Notice how I took the words "going to," and I squish them into the word "gonna."
下一個要教的詞是從「going to」來的，把它壓扁之後就變成「gonna」。再提醒大家一次，這些縮讀字其實並不是真正的字。只是我們快速且大聲講出來時會唸的方式。我可以說「今晚，我會去（going to）吃冰淇淋」，縮減版就會是「今晚，我會去（gonna）吃冰淇淋」。可以注意一下我將「going to」這兩個字壓扁成「gonna」這個字喔。
So, my son sometimes can buy lunch at school, but he doesn't always have money. So sometimes he will say, "Hey, can you give me money to buy lunch today?" Um, but he—what he actually says is "Hey, can you gimme money to buy lunch today?" So, another reduction is when we take the words "give me," and we squish them together to make the word "gimme."
我兒子有時候可以在學校買午餐，但他身上不是隨時都有錢。所以有時候他會說「嘿，你今天可以給我（give me）錢買午餐嗎？」嗯，但他－－他真正講出來的是「嘿，你今天可以給我（gimme）錢買午餐嗎？」另一個縮讀字是從「give me」來的，我們壓扁它們，變成新的單字「gimme」。
So, I hope you're enjoying the fact that I'm putting sentences on the screen and then pretending to squish them because "I could have just stood in front of a whiteboard to teach this lesson," or "I coulda just stood in front of a whiteboard." So, the phrase "could have"—we take the words "could have"—is another reduction. When we say this in spoken English, we usually say "coulda."
希望你們喜歡我把句子放在影片上並假裝把句子捏扁的教學方式，因為「我大可以（could have）站在白板前面教這堂課」，或是「我大可以（coulda）站在白板前面教這堂課」。片語「could have」－－我們拿「could have」來看－－是另一個縮讀字。在口語英文中，我們常常會說「coulda」。
So, sometimes there are things that we must do; there are things that we have to do. Right now, "I have to make this video quickly" because the sun is coming out. But, if I said this with a reduction, I would say "I hafta make this video quickly." We take the words "have" and "to," and we squish them again into a new word, "hafta." Again, remember, these new words are not words that you would write down. They are simply how we say the reduction when we are speaking English quickly or when we're speaking as a native English speaker would speak.
So, sometimes my students won't know the answer to the question I'm asking, and they will say, "I dunno." This is probably one of the most common reductions in English: "I dunno." And it's probably one that you've heard before. Sometimes they just use the contraction and say, "I don't know." Um, but rarely do they actually say, "I do not know." They don't usually say the full and proper sentence. Usually I hear "I don't know" or "I dunno." Usually it's "I dunno."
有時候，我的學生不知道我問的問題的答案，他們就會說「我不知道（dunno）」。這大概是英文中最常見的縮讀字之一了，「我不知道（dunno）」。這句話你們之前應該有聽過。有時候我學生會用這個縮讀字，說「我不知道（don't know）」。但他們幾乎不會講「我不知道（do not know）」。他們不常講最完整且正式的句子。我通常聽到的都是「我不知道（don't know）」或「我不知道（dunno）」。最常聽到的是「我不知道（dunno）」。
So, sometimes I will have a student come to class without a pen, and they will say they can't do any work because they don't have anything to write with. And I'll usually ask them, "Don't you have a pen in your locker?" But usually I'll use a reduction, and I'll say, "Doncha have a pen in your locker?" "Doncha" is kind of a funny one. It's when we take "don't you," and we squish it into "doncha." And it sounds a little funny even when I say it right now. But it is a reduction that we use all the time. Often I will say to people, "Doncha have a pen in your locker?" "Doncha have a pencil in your pencil case?"
有時候我學生來上課不帶筆，他們就會說自己沒東西可以寫字，所以沒辦法做任何事。我通常都會問他們「你（don't you）的櫃子裡沒有筆嗎？」。但我通常都會用縮讀字，我會說「你（doncha）的櫃子裡沒有筆嗎？」「Doncha」滿好笑的。我們把「don't you」壓扁，變成「doncha」。我甚至現在講出來也覺得有點好笑。但這真的是我們很常用的縮讀字。我通常會這樣跟別人說「你（doncha）的櫃子裡沒有筆嗎？」「你（doncha）的鉛筆盒裡沒有筆嗎？」
So, this next reduction takes the words "got" and "you," and it squishes them into either "gotya" or "gotcha." So, a full sentence would be, "I got you some coffee from the coffee shop." Or, if I reduce it, I could say, "I gotya some coffee from the coffee shop" or "I gotcha some coffee from the coffee shop."
So, sometimes people go and do something fun. And when they come back, you might say, "Did you have a good time?" But what you would probably actually say is, "Didja have a good time?" We take the words "did" and "you," and we kinda squish them into "didja," a weird-looking word, but it is actually what we say a lot in English. "Didja have a good time?"
Well, hey, thanks for watching this video on English reductions. I hope that you were able to learn a lot of them. I hope me squishing sentences on the screen will help you remember them. I'm Bob the Canadian, and you are learning English with me. Thank you so much for watching. Don't forget to click that red subscribe button if you are new here, and give me a thumbs-up if this video helped you learn just a little bit more English.