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「憋尿不好嗎?TED 用詼諧動畫講解給你聽」- Is It Bad to Hold Your Pee?


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It begins with a bit of discomfort and soon becomes a pressing sensation that's impossible to ignore. Finally, it's all you can think about. And out of sheer desperation, you go on a hunt for a bathroom until...ahhh.
一開始只是有點不舒服,但那很快變成一種無法忽略的壓迫感。最後,你腦袋裡只能想這件事。出於極為迫切的需求,你開始尋找廁所,直到...啊。

Humans should urinate at least four to six times a day, but occasionally, the pressures of modern life forces us to clench and hold it in. How bad is this habit? And how long can our bodies withstand it? The answers lie in the workings of the bladder, an oval pouch that sits inside the pelvis.
人類一天至少應該小便四到六次,但偶爾,現代生活的壓力迫使我們咬牙然後憋住尿意。這習慣有多糟?我們的身體能忍受多久?答案就在膀胱的運作中,一個位在骨盆內的橢圓袋子。

Surrounding this structure are several other organs that together make up the whole urinary system: two kidneys, two ureters, two urethral sphincters, and a urethra. Constantly trickling down from the kidneys is the yellowish liquid known as urine. The kidneys make urine from a mix of water and the body's waste products, funneling the unwanted fluid into two muscular tubes called ureters. These carry it downward into the hollow organ known as the bladder. This organ's muscular wall is made of tissue called detrusor muscle, which relaxes as the bladder fills, allowing it to inflate like a balloon. As the bladder gets full, the detrusor contracts. The internal urethral sphincter automatically and involuntarily opens, and the urine is released.
包圍著這個構造的是一起組成整個泌尿系統的其它幾個器官:兩個腎臟、兩條輸尿管、兩層尿道括約肌,以及一個尿道。持續從腎臟滴答落下的是被稱作尿液的黃色液體。腎臟用水份和身體廢料的混合物製造尿液,將這多餘的液體輸送到名為輸尿管的兩條肌肉管中。輸尿管將尿液向下運送到稱為膀胱的中空器官內。這個器官的肌壁是由名為逼尿肌的組織所構成,它會在尿液注入膀胱時放鬆,讓膀胱能像氣球般膨脹。當膀胱裝滿時,逼尿肌收縮。尿道內括約肌自動且非自願地打開,而尿液就被釋放出來。

Whooshing downwards, the fluid enters the urethra and stops short at the external urethral sphincter. This works like a tap. When you want to delay urinating, you keep the sphincter closed. When you want to release it, you can voluntarily open the flood gates. But how do you sense your bladder's fullness so you know when to pee?
咻地向下流,尿液進入尿道然後突然在尿道外括約肌停下。尿道外括約肌的功能就像個水龍頭。當你想延遲小便時,你就讓括約肌維持關閉狀態。當你想要解放時,你可以自願地打開水閘門。不過你是怎樣感到膀胱裝滿,好讓自己知道什麼時候該去尿尿呢?

Inside the layers of detrusor muscles are millions of stretch receptors that get triggered as the bladder fills. They send signals along your nerves to the sacral region in your spinal cord. A reflex signal travels back to your bladder, making the detrusor muscle contract slightly and increasing the bladder's pressure so you're aware that it's filling up. Simultaneously, the internal urethral sphincter opens. This is called the micturition reflex. The brain can counter it if it's not a good time to urinate by sending another signal to contract the external urethral sphincter.
在逼尿肌內層是數百萬個在膀胱注滿時會被刺激的牽張感受器。它們沿著神經發送信號到位於脊髓的骶骨區。反射信號回傳到膀胱,使逼尿肌稍微收縮並增加膀胱壓力,這樣你就能注意到膀胱要滿了。同時,尿道內括約肌開啟。這叫排尿反射。如果現在不是排尿的好時機,大腦可以做出抵抗,藉由傳送另一個信號來使尿道外括約肌收縮。

With about 150 to 200 milliliters of urine inside of it, the bladder's muscular wall is stretched enough for you to sense that there is urine within. At about 400 to 500 milliliters, the pressure becomes uncomfortable. The bladder can go on stretching, but only to a point. Above 1000 milliliters, it may burst. Most people would lose bladder control before this happens, but in very rare cases, such as when a person can't sense the need to urinate,
the pouch can rupture painfully, requiring surgery to fix. But under normal circumstances, your decision to urinate stops the brain's signal to the external urethral sphincter, causing it to relax and the bladder to empty.
在裡面有大約 150 到 200 毫升的尿液時,膀胱肌壁的延展程度足以讓你感覺到裡面有尿液。在大約 400 到 500 毫升時,那種壓迫感變得不舒服。膀胱可以繼續延展,但只能到一定程度。超過 1000 毫升,膀胱可能會撐爆。大多數人在這發生前膀胱就會失控,但在非常少數的案例中,例如當一個人無法察覺排尿需求時,尿袋可能就會很疼痛地破裂,需要靠手術修復。但在正常情況下,你排尿的決定會阻斷大腦信號傳到尿道外括約肌,使括約肌放鬆,然後膀胱排空。

The external urethral sphincter is one of the muscles of the pelvic floor, and it provides support to the urethra and bladder neck. It's lucky we have these pelvic floor muscles because placing pressure on the system by coughing, sneezing, laughing, or jumping
could cause bladder leakage. Instead, the pelvic floor muscles keep the region sealed until you're ready to go.
尿道外括約肌是骨盆底的肌肉之一,它提供尿道和膀胱頸支撐。幸好我們有這些骨盆底肌肉,因為咳嗽、打噴嚏、笑或彈跳來對泌尿系統施壓都可能造成膀胱漏尿。而骨盆底肌肉讓這區域在你準備好解放前保持緊閉。

But holding it in for too long, forcing out your urine too fast, or urinating without proper physical support may over time weaken or overwork that muscular sling. That can lead to an overactive pelvic floor, bladder pain, urgency, or urinary incontinence.
但憋尿太久、迫使尿液太快排出,或沒有適當身體支撐地排尿,隨時間過去也許會使那肌環變弱或疲乏。那可能導致骨盆底過度活躍、膀胱疼痛、迫切排尿需求,或尿失禁。

So, in the interest of long-term health, it's not a great habit to hold your pee. But in the short term, at least, your body and brain have got you covered, so you can conveniently choose your moment of sweet release.
因此,為了長遠的健康著想,憋尿不是個好習慣。但至少就短時間來說,有你的身體和大腦罩著你,所以你可以隨自己方便地選擇你的甜蜜解放時刻。

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