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「文法好簡單:『現在完成式』和『過去簡單式』有什麼差別?」- Understanding the Present Perfect


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What is the present perfect? The present perfect is unfinished time. What is unfinished time? Unfinished time is an unbroken connection between the past and the present.
什麼是現在完成式?現在完成式是未結束的時間。什麼是未結束的時間?未結束的時間是過去與現在之間不間斷的連結。

A good way to understand it is to compare unfinished time with finished time. With finished time, we use the past simple: "I went to Paris last year." Last year is finished time. But look at this sentence: "I have been to Paris twice." Here the context is unfinished time. What is the unfinished time? Here you're talking about experiences in your life. Your life is unfinished time, so we use the present perfect.
要了解這的一個好方法是將未結束的時間和已結束的時間作比較。已結束的時間,我們會用過去簡單式:「我去年去了巴黎。」去年是已結束的時間。不過看看這句:「我去過巴黎兩次。」這的語境是未結束的時間。什麼是未結束的時間?在這你是在說自己的人生經歷。你的人生是未結束的時間,因此我們用現在完成式。

When you are dead and you are spoken about at your funeral, they will say, "He loved France. He visited Paris many times"—finished time. Game over.
當你死翹翹然後在自己的葬禮上被提到時,他們會說:「他熱愛法國。他拜訪巴黎許多次。」--已結束的時間。沒戲唱了。

Unfinished time can be clearly seen in this present perfect sentence: "I have lived in Paris for five years." You moved to Paris five years ago, and you still live there now—this is unfinished time. Compare it with finished time: "I lived in Paris for five years before moving back home to Moscow." You lived in Paris for five years, but you don't live there now.
未結束的時間在這句現在完成式的句子中可以被清楚看見:「我已經住在巴黎五年了。」你五年前搬到巴梨,你現在還住在那--這是未結束的時間。將這句和已結束的時間相比:「在搬回莫斯科前我在巴黎住過五年。」你住在巴黎五年,但你現在沒住在那。 

So when you find yourself asking, "What is the present perfect?" remember that the present perfect is unfinished time.
所以當你發現自己在問「什麼是現在完成式?」時,記得現在完成式就是「未結束的時間」。

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