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「懶惰的科學」- The Science of Laziness


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It can feel good lounging around and doing nothing. Sometimes it's too good. Whether it's to avoid work or escape physical activity, we've all had those days. But why are some people way lazier than others? Is there a couch potato gene that causes lazy behavior?
四處躺著什麼事也不做感覺會超好的。有時候太好了。不管是要避開工作,或是遠離體力活動,我們全都有過那些日子。但為什麼有些人遠遠比其他人還懶呢?有一種導致懶惰行為的「沙發馬鈴薯」基因嗎?

Evolution has molded our brains and bodies to respond positively to natural rewards such as food, sex, and even exercise. Wait, exercise?
演化已將我們的腦袋和身體塑造成能對自然的報償積極回應,像是食物、性愛、甚至還有運動。等等,運動?

Yep, the pleasure we experience comes largely from the dopamine system in our brain, which conveys these messages throughout the body, ultimately helping to ensure the survival of our species. For many, the pleasure derived from exercise can become just as addictive as food and sex. But while we're all up for more food and sex, many struggle with the desire for physical activity, even though it's an essential part of human biology.
是的,我們體驗到的快樂大部分是來自於我們大腦中的多巴胺系統,那貫穿全身傳遞這些訊息,最後幫助保護我們物種的生存。對許多人來說,從運動得到的樂趣可以變成就像和食物及性愛一樣讓人上癮的。但雖然我們全都想要更多食物和性愛,還是有許多人抗拒對體力活動的渴望,即使他是我們人類生物學中非常重要的一部份。

Scientists studying mice have found an interesting genetic connection. After separating mice into two groups—those that chose to run on their wheel more often and those that decided not to run as much— the difference was clear in their offspring.
研究小老鼠的科學家們發現一個有趣的基因連結。在將小老鼠分成兩個組別後--那些選擇更常在牠們的轉輪上奔跑的,還有那些決定不要跑那麼多的--差異在牠們的後代相當明顯。

After 10 generations, the running mice would run on their wheels 75% more often than the other group; and by 16 generations, they were running 7 miles a day as opposed to the average 4 miles.
在十代後,喜歡跑步的小老鼠會比其他組別多出75%的頻率在牠們的滾輪上跑;在十六代後,牠們一天跑七英哩(約十一公里),相較於平均的四英哩(約六公里)。

It seemed their motivation for physical activity was genetic. We all inherit genes from our parents that play a key role in the development of our brains, and these genes can make some literally crave activity.
牠們對體力活動的動機似乎是遺傳的。我們全都從我們的父母那遺傳到在我們大腦發展中扮演關鍵角色的基因,這些基因可以讓某些人確實渴望活動力。

In fact, the brains of the running mice had larger dopamine systems and regions that deal with motivation and reward. They needed activity. Otherwise their brains would react similar to a drug addicted rodent when deprived of cocaine or nicotine. They were genetically addicted to running.
事實上,愛跑步小老鼠的大腦有著較大的、處理動力和報償機制的多巴胺系統。牠們需要活動。否則牠們的大腦就會和染上毒癮的囓齒動物在沒有古柯鹼和尼古丁時反應相似。牠們在基因上對跑步上癮了。

We also inherit genes responsible for our other traits from impulsivity to procrastination to work ethic and straight-up laziness. And it turns out our physical laziness may be linked to a "couch potato" gene or rather a mutation in a normal gene which regulates activity levels.
我們同樣也遺傳到負責我們其他特性的基因,從衝動性格、到拖拖拉拉、到工作道德、還有真正的懶惰。結果發現我們在體力方面的懶惰也許和一個「沙發馬鈴薯」基因有關,或者更確切地說,是在一個調節活動力程度的普通基因中的突變。

This gene is responsible for a type of dopamine receptor. Without it, you are more likely to prefer sitting around and simply doing less than those who have the properly functioning gene.
此基因負責一種多巴胺受器。沒有它的話,你會更有可能比那些有正常運作基因的人更喜歡到處坐下,且就是動得比較少。

So the truth is your desire for activity may not be entirely up to you. But many environmental factors are also at play, which means you aren't doomed to a life of laziness.
所以事實是,你對活動的渴望並不完全取決於你。但許多環境因素也同樣在影響範圍內,這表示你不會註定要過著懶惰的一生。

Although making a change will be harder for some, knowledge is power! So if you think you're genetically lazy, get off the couch and fight your DNA. Your brain will reward you in the end.
雖然做出改變對某些人來說會比較困難,但知識就是力量!所以如果你認為你是基因上懶惰,離開沙發和你的DNA對抗。你的腦袋會在最後獎勵你。

Need some help to get there? Check out our past video on the science of productivity, which might help you improve your motivation and fight that laziness.
需要一些幫助取得成功嗎?看看我們過去的生產力科學影片,那可能會幫助你增進你的動力並對抗那懶惰。

And if you'd like to learn more about the amazing science behind extraordinary athletic performance, check out one of our favorite books The Sports Gene by David Epstein, which was a major source for this episode. It's a great read and you can get a copy of it using the link in the description below.
如果你想要學習更多有關在優秀運動員表現背後的驚人科學,看看我們最愛的書籍之一,David Epstein寫的「運動基因」,那是這一集的主要資料來源。是本很棒的書,你可以使用下方關於裡的連結來買一本。

And subscribe for more weekly science videos.
訂閱收看更多每週科學影片。

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