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【老師救救我】include 三種用法,一次滿足!

動詞 include 放在句子後方作補充說明用法時,有幾個常見的型態--including、included,它們因為太相像而讓許多人總是搞錯它們的用法,像是:

Some people are trapped in the burning building, _____ two men and five women.
請問老師,我應該要用 including 還是 included 呢?

include用法

圖片來源:Designed by Freepik

 

include 怎麼用?

Include 就是一般動詞「包括、包含」的意思,需要搭配主詞、受詞,例如:
The meal includes dessert and beverage.
(餐點包含甜點以及飲料。)

 

including 怎麼用?

Including 是用來帶出包含的事物,在主要句子後面先加上逗號之後,由 including 引導含括的事物,例如剛剛的例句中包含的事物在後面,所以前方的空格應該使用 including:
Some people are trapped in the burning building, including two men and five women.
(有些人被困在那棟著火的建築物裡,包含兩名男性及五名女性。)
再舉個例子:
My grandparents own a farm, and they grow a lot of vegetables there, including cabbage and peppers.
(我的祖父母有一座農場,他們在那裡種許多蔬菜,包含高麗菜跟椒類。)

 

included 怎麼用?

Included 也是在主要句子後加上逗號,再作補充說明,不過它放置的位子跟 including 相反,會先講出所包含的事物,再加上 included 於後方位置。例如剛剛那句可以這樣改:
Some people are trapped in the burning building, two men and five women included.
(有些人被困在那棟著火的建築物裡,包含兩名男性及五名女性。)
或是:
They’re having a big sale, all electric appliances included.
(他們在舉辦一場大拍賣,所有電器產品都有包含在內。)