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「記憶力大考驗,但小心大腦會詐騙」- Can You Remember This?


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I'm gonna read you a list of 15 words, and after I'm done reading them, I want you to write down as many as you can remember. Ready to listen? Okay.
我要念一連串十五個字給你聽,然後在我念完後,我想要你記得多少就寫下多少。準備要聽了嗎?好。

Sour, nice, candy, honey, sugar, soda, bitter, chocolate, good, heart, taste, cake, tooth, tart, pie.
Sour(酸)、nice(好)、candy(糖果)、honey(蜂蜜)、sugar(糖)、soda(汽水)、bitter(苦)、chocolate(巧克力)、good(好)、heart(心)、taste(味道)、cake(蛋糕)、tooth(牙齒)、tart(塔)、pie(派)。

Okay. Now pause this video and write down as many as you can without cheating. Even when you hit the point of getting stumped, close your eyes and think, and you'll likely recall a few more. Ready to reveal?
好。現在暫停這部影片,然後誠實寫下你能記得的字。就算你卡關了,閉上眼睛想一想,你很可能會再想起幾個。準備好揭曉答案了嗎?

Now, some of you likely got the last few words I said, like tooth, tart, and pie, but did you remember the word "sweet"? Be honest, because, surprisingly, the majority of people are actually likely to write down the word "sweet" even though it was not on the list at all. And this is what we call a "false memory."
現在,你們有些人可能寫了我說的最後幾個字,像是 tooth(牙齒)、tart(塔)和 pie(派),但你記得 sweet(甜)這個字嗎?不要說謊喔,因為,出乎意料地,大部份的人事實上都可能寫下 sweet(甜)這個字,即使它根本沒列在清單上。這就是我們所謂的「假記憶」。

It's a psychological phenomenon where a person remembers something that didn't occur, like how many people vividly remember the Monopoly man having a monocle—he never has—or recall hearing the phrase "Luke, I am your father" when he only says "No, I am your father," or the evil witch saying "Mirror, mirror on the wall" when she says "Magic mirror on the wall."
這是一種心理學上的現象,一個人記得某件未曾發生過的事,就像有多少人清楚記得大富翁那個人戴了單片眼鏡--他從來沒戴過--或記得聽到「路克,我是你爸爸」這句話,但他只說「不,我是你爸爸」,或是邪惡女巫說「魔鏡啊魔鏡」,但她說的其實是「牆上的神奇鏡子啊」。

Memories are first formed in the hippocampus of the brain, one of the only areas where brand-new neurons are made regularly. This information is saved by altering neurons and creating synapses and connections, but it's often only focusing on the major details of your experience. So you might remember the time, place, and person, but not necessarily the color of their hat.
記憶最初在大腦中的海馬迴形成,海馬迴是少數嶄新神經元會持續被製造出來的區域之一。資訊靠著改變神經元和創造突觸及連結來儲存,但那常常只聚焦在你的經歷的主要細節上。因此你可能記得時間、地點和人物,但不一定會記得他們帽子的顏色。

However, your memories aren't perfect. If you're introduced to new information between the time of you experiencing something, and when you try to recall it, for example, if somebody else gives you a slightly different account of how things were, it can alter or even completely replace your memory. And eventually, these new memories gradually migrate further into the cortex, becoming your truth. And each time you think about or misremember an event, the further you cement this new truth.
然而,你的記憶並非沒有漏洞。如果你在經歷某件事時被告知新的資訊,那麼當你試著回想時,例如,如果別人對情況作了稍微不同的描述,那可能會改變或甚至整個取代你的記憶。最後,這些新的記憶慢慢進到大腦皮質,成為你的事實。而每次你想起或記錯一個事件時,你就越加鞏固了這個新的事實。

This simple effect can have pretty incredible consequences, like eyewitnesses for crimes or accidents recalling false details. In fact, one study found that if they showed people a car accident and then asked two groups either "How fast were the cars going when they bumped into each other?" or "How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?" those who heard the word "smashed" were more likely to report higher speeds. This same verb also made them more likely to report that they saw broken glass in the accident even when there was none.
這簡單的作用可能產生頗為驚人的後果,像是犯罪或意外目擊證人記起錯誤細節。事實上,一項研究發現,如果他們給人們看一場車禍,接著問兩組人「那些車碰撞彼此時的車速多快?」或「那些車衝撞彼此時的車速多快?」聽到「衝撞」這個詞的人較有可能描述較快的速度。同樣這個動詞也會讓他們更有可能說他們在意外現場看到碎玻璃,即使現場根本沒有。

In a similar study, a car was shown going through a stop sign causing an accident, but if a question was asked suggesting it was a yield sign, many witnesses would confirm that it was a yield sign. This is why eyewitness accounts are less often used as evidence now unless they're corroborated and verified.
在一項類似的研究中,人們看見一輛車通過停止標誌然後造成意外,但若問的問題中說那是個讓行標誌,很多目擊者就會肯定那是個讓行標誌。這就是為什麼目擊者的描述現在較少被採為證據,除非他們的證詞被證實是真的。

Finally, some studies have been able to successfully implant false childhood memories into test subjects. Researchers would give the subjects four short narratives describing childhood events that happened to them, but without the subjects knowing, one false memory was included about being lost in a shopping mall as a kid. And yet, 25 percent of the test subjects reported remembering the false event.
最後,有些研究已經能成功植入假的兒時記憶在受試者腦中。研究人員會提供受試者四則他們小時候發生過的事的簡短敘述,但在受試者不知道的情況下,有一個關於小時候在購物中心走失的假記憶被包含在其中。然而,百分之二十五的受試者都說自己記得那個不真實的事件。

Think your memory is better? How did this video even start? I mean, other than our logo which plays at the beginning of every video we make, can you remember what happened after that? Except...we didn't play the logo at the beginning of this video. And if you thought we did, I just gave you a false memory.
覺得你的記憶力比較好嗎?這部影片是怎麼開始的呢?我是說,除了我們每部影片開頭都會有的標誌外,你能想起後來發生了什麼事嗎?只不過...我們在這部影片的開頭沒有放標誌。如果你以為我們有的話,我剛給了你一個假記憶。

Be sure to check out our newest videos by clicking the screen or using the links in the description, and subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.
務必點擊螢幕或用資訊欄中的連結觀看我們的最新影片,還有訂閱以收看更多週四更新的每週科學影片。

  • 「根本、絲毫」- At All

    ...the majority of people are actually likely to write down the word "sweet" even though it was not on the list at all.
    ...大部份的人事實上都可能寫下 sweet(甜)這個字,即使它根本沒列在清單上。

  • 「集中、特別關注」- Focus On

    This information is saved by altering neurons and creating synapses and connections, but it's often only focusing on the major details of your experience.
    資訊靠著改變神經元和創造突觸及連結來儲存,但那常常只聚焦在你的經歷的主要細節上。

  • 「除了」- Other Than

    I mean, other than our logo which plays at the beginning of every video we make, can you remember what happened after that?
    我是說,除了我們每部影片開頭都會有的標誌外,你能想起後來發生了什麼事嗎?

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