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「強人習近平的崛起之路」- How Xi Jinping Went From Feeding Pigs to Ruling China


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Xi Jinping is the most powerful Chinese president in decades, and he has many faces: Tough-guy Xi cracks down on corruption, statesman Xi fights for free trade, nationalist Xi reclaims land in the South China Sea, and visionary Xi aims to make China a great global power. Here's how a boy who was sent to the countryside to shovel sewage and feed pigs reached the pinnacle of power.
習近平是幾十年來影響力最大的中國元首,而他擁有許多面貌:強人習近平打擊貪腐、政治家習近平爭取自由貿易、國家主義的習近平積極宣示南海領土主權,而有遠見的習近平旨在讓中國成為一個世界強權。以下是一個下鄉勞改去鏟糞和餵豬的男孩爬到權力頂峰的故事。

Xi was born in Beijing in 1953. His father, Xi Zhongxun, was a communist revolutionary leader and China's propaganda chief, who rose to become a vice premier before being purged in Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution. At the age of 15, Xi, too, was affected by the Cultural Revolution. He was sent to a rural village in northwestern China, where he lived in a cave house dug into a hillside.
習近平於 1953 年在北京出生。他的父親習仲勳是共產革命領導人和中國的宣傳部部長,在被毛澤東發起的文化大革命肅清前,他曾做到副總理一位。十五歲時,習近平也遭受文革影響。他被送到中國西北地區的一座農村,住在鑿到山坡裡的窯洞。

He was feeding pigs. You know, he was, like, cleaning, you know, kind of...toilets. He was doing farming. You know, in his spare time, he would read books.
他當時餵豬。你知道,他打掃茅廁。他做農活。閒暇時候,他會讀書。

That's Bloomberg Senior Government Reporter Ting Shi.
那是彭博社的資深政治記者 Ting Shi。

I cover China's politics and foreign relations.
我報導中國的政治和外交關係。

While living in the countryside, he became a voracious reader, picking up everything from Victor Hugo to Ernest Hemingway.
在鄉村居住的期間,他貪婪地閱讀,讀的東西從雨果到海明威都有。

He took one of his all-time favorite books with him. That is Karl Marx's magnum opus, Das Kapital. He read it three times over seven years.
他身上帶著一本最愛的書。也就是卡爾‧馬克斯的代表作《資本論》。他在七年間讀了這本書三次。

In 1975, Xi was allowed to return to Beijing, where he studied chemical engineering, but his work as a Communist Party member prevailed. Xi rose through the party ranks in the rapidly industrialized coastal provinces of Fujian and Zhejiang. His big break came in 2007 with his promotion to top leader of Shanghai. The job aided Xi's ascension to the party's all-powerful Standing Committee, setting him up to succeed Hu Jintao as party leader, commander in chief, and president. By 2013, the transformation was complete. Xi was China's paramount leader.
1975 年,習近平獲准重返北京,他在此就讀化工系,不過他身為共產黨員的工作來得更重要。習近平在快速工業化的沿海省份福建和浙江內漸漸爬到黨內高層。他的機運在 2007 年被升為上海市最高領導時到來。這份職務幫助習近平往上進入黨內擁有至高權力的常務委員會,為他接任胡錦濤成為黨主席、總司令和元首作準備。到了 2013 年,交接全面完成。習近平成為中國最高領導人。

There was nothing obvious in the early part of his career to suggest he would become one of China's most powerful leaders ever.
在他的政治生涯早期並沒有什麼明顯徵兆顯示出他會成為中國歷來最有影響力的領導人之一。

Having taken power, Xi has demonstrated his flair for hands-on management and strict Communist Party discipline. He's launched a Mao-style campaign to tighten up controls on ideology, media, and dissent by arresting journalists and activists.
大權在握,習近平展現出天生的親力親為治理風格和嚴格的共產黨紀律。他發起一項毛氏風格的運動來加強對意識形態、媒體和異己的控制,方法是逮捕記者和激進份子。

And he has been overseeing probably the harshest crackdown on activism and human rights groups in the party's recent history.
而他監督著或許是對激進主義和人權團體最殘暴的迫害行動,在共產黨的近代史中。

In addition, Xi has pledged a blizzard of economic reforms and ordered the biggest military overhaul since the 1950s.
此外,習近平還誓言做出一連串經濟改革,並推動自 1950 年代以來最大規模的一場軍事改革。

He has this great belief China totally deserves to restore its place in the world. "Chinese Dream" is the phrase he coined to convey this message.
他深信中國絕對值得重返在世界上的地位。「中國夢」是他創來傳達這項訊息的說法。

While Xi is seen as an able leader at home, he's only starting to establish China's new power on the world stage. And President Donald Trump has accused Xi of failing to curb the nuclear ambitions of North Korea.
儘管習近平在自家被視為一位有能力的領導,他在世界舞台上才正剛開始建立中國的新勢力。 而川普總統責備習近平無法約束北韓的核武野心。

So far, he doesn't seem to be able to give up on North Korea, because the fear about the collapse of North Korea and the consequences of that.
到目前為止,他似乎無法放棄北韓,因為害怕北韓垮台及其帶來的後續影響。

But Xi is the first Chinese president not to visit North Korea and has argued China isn't responsible for that. And despite their disagreements over North Korea and trade, Xi and U.S. President Donald Trump hit it off.
但習近平是第一位不會到北韓參訪的中國元首,且他也認為中國無須為北韓核武負責。雖然在北韓和貿易方面意見相左,習近平和美國總統川普還是很合得來。

When he was in Mar-a-Lago on his first visit to the U.S., he seems to be totally in his element! He was telling Trump about the history of the Korean peninsula, and Trump was rolling out his grandchildren to sing a Chinese song for Xi Jinping.
在他首度訪美到海湖莊園時,他似乎完全應付自如!他跟川普講述朝鮮半島的歷史,而川普讓自己的孫子們唱中文歌歡迎習近平。

Just how long their warm rapport will last remains to be seen. Back home, Xi will complete his consolidation of power with a party congress in Beijing in October 2017, when roughly half of China's top officials will be replaced. The questions now are, Will he use that power to force through reforms needed to revamp the economy? And will China emerge to rival the U.S. as the world's number one superpower?
他們之間的友好關係能持續多久還有待觀察。回到中國,習近平將在 2017 年 10 月於北京舉辦一場共產黨全國代表大會來完成勢力鞏固,屆時約莫有一半的中國高官會被替換掉。現在的問題是,他是否會用那權力來強推改善經濟所需的改革?以及中國是否會崛起和美國競爭世界第一強權的地位?

  • 「制裁、打擊」- Crack Down

    Tough-guy Xi cracks down on corruption...
    強人習近平打擊貪腐...

  • 「此外」- In Addition

    In addition, Xi has pledged a blizzard of economic reforms and ordered the biggest military overhaul since the 1950s.
    此外,習近平還誓言做出一連串經濟改革,並推動自 1950 年代以來最大規模的一場軍事改革。

  • 「到目前為止」- So Far

    So far, he doesn't seem to be able to give up on North Korea, because the fear about the collapse of North Korea and the consequences of that.
    到目前為止,他似乎無法放棄北韓,因為害怕北韓垮台及其帶來的後續影響。

  • 「相處融洽」- Hit It Off

    And despite their disagreements over North Korea and trade, Xi and U.S. President Donald Trump hit it off.
    雖然在北韓和貿易方面意見相左,習近平和美國總統川普還是很合得來。

  • 「適得其所、得心應手」- In One's Element

    When he was in Mar-a-Lago on his first visit to the U.S., he seems to be totally in his element!
    在他首度訪美到海湖莊園時,他似乎完全應付自如!

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