Facebook and its CEO Mark Zuckerberg are under a ton of pressure right now—so much pressure that Zuckerberg nervously sat down with CNN to say this:
臉書及其執行長馬克‧祖克柏現正遭受龐大無比的壓力－－這壓力大到讓祖克柏焦慮地與 CNN 坐下進行訪談發表這段言論：
You know, I think what's clear is that in 2016, we were not as on top of a number of issues as we should have, whether it was Russian interference or fake news.
我想很清楚的一點是，在 2016 年時，我們沒有好好去掌控一些議題，無論是俄羅斯的干預還是假新聞都是。
The latest issue? Facebook admitted that a developer who had accessed the data of 50 million Facebook users later sold it to a political firm called Cambridge Analytica. That firm was later hired by the Trump campaign. Facebook says both parties violated its policies, but many users feel the company could have done more to protect their data, and a growing number of people say they're leaving the site.
So, this is 2018, but to understand what's happening today, you have to look back to Facebook's policies between 2007 and 2015. In 2007, Facebook opened its platform to developers, meaning it allowed outside apps to access all kinds of user data.
現在是 2018 年，不過要了解目前發生的事，你必須回頭看臉書在 2007 年到 2015 年間的政策。2007 年時，臉書向開發者開放平台，也就代表允許外來應用程式取得各種用戶資料。
Did you ever play the game FarmVille? Or did you ever use Tinder or Spotify? You may have noticed that when you use these apps, they ask you to sign in through Facebook. Back then, Facebook allowed apps not just to access your information, but also to access the information of your friends, and that helped the apps and advertisers better understand your preferences.
你玩過 FarmVille 這款遊戲嗎？或者你是否曾用過 Tinder 或 Spotify？你或許有注意到，在你使用這些應用程式時，它們會要求你透過臉書登入。 那時候，臉書不僅允許應用程式存取你的資料，也允許它們存取你好友的資料，而那協助應用程式及廣告商更了解你的偏好。
During this time, Facebook became a fixture in its users' lives. By allowing access to that data, Facebook paved the way for all kinds of apps...to help people find dates, search for jobs, be productive, and stay entertained. It also ushered in a new style of political campaigning.
The new Obama 2012 smartphone app has everything you need to get the president's back wherever you go.
And that in turn fueled the social networks' growth. In 2007, Facebook had 58 million users; today, it has more than two billion.
But back to that period we were talking about. In 2014, Facebook dialed way back on its data-sharing policies. It announced that it would restrict the data that apps could access, and it would stop allowing developers from getting the information of your friends without their consent. Those changes were implemented in 2015. But this period in Facebook's history had already opened the company up to some of the massive problems it's facing today.
不過，回到我們剛才討論的那個時期。2014 年，臉書大幅約束其資料分享政策。它宣告將會限制應用程式可以取得的資料，且不再讓開發者未經用戶好友同意就取得他們的資訊。那些改制在 2015 年施行。不過臉書歷史上的這段時期已經造成公司目前要面對的其中一些嚴重問題。
If you pass on that amount of information to somebody who's trying to manipulate you politically, then of course they're able to exploit your vulnerabilities and send you customized messages that no one else will see, and no one knows what those messages are.
In 2013, when all of this data was still available, a Cambridge University researcher accessed the information of 50 million Facebook users. That data was ultimately sold, against Facebook's policies, to Cambridge Analytica. Cambridge Analytica says it's launching its own investigation to determine if the firm engaged in any wrongdoing. Now, Facebook says it's investigating all of the apps that had access to massive amounts of user information. But that's a lot of apps, a lot of Facebook users, and a lot of their friends.
Well, it's hard to know what we'll find, but we're going to review thousands of apps.
- 「回顧、回頭看」- Look Back
So, this is 2018, but to understand what's happening today, you have to look back to Facebook's policies between 2007 and 2015.
現在是 2018 年，不過要了解目前發生的事，你必須回頭看臉書在 2007 年到 2015 年間的政策。
- 「登入」- Sign In
You may have noticed that when you use these apps, they ask you to sign in through Facebook.
- 「為...鋪路、使...成為可能」- Pave The Way For
By allowing access to that data, Facebook paved the way for all kinds of apps...
- 「引進、開創」- Usher In
It also ushered in a new style of political campaigning.