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「生產力的科學奧秘」- The Science of Productivity


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In a world that seems busier by the day, productivity is on the minds of many. But instead of downloading the latest time management APP, or forcing yourself to stay at work for hours on end, how can we use science to crack open the potential of our minds?
在今天這看似日理萬機的世界,生產力是許多人心中所關心的事。但除了下載最新的時間管理APP、或是強迫自己連續工作數個小時,我們還可以如何使用科學來開啟我們腦力的潛能?

Is there a secret to being productive?
具生產力是有秘訣的嗎?

The first thing to come to terms with is that your willpower is simply not enough. In fact, some studies suggest that willpower is an exhaustible source that can be entirely used up. This is a concept known as ego depletion.
首先要接受的事,是你的意志力就是不夠。事實上,有些研究顯示意志力是個會被全然消耗殆盡的資源。這是個被稱作自我耗竭的觀念。

So instead of convincing yourself to simply try harder, a more methodical approach is suggested.
所以不要僅僅說服自己更加努力,建議使用一種更加有條不紊的方式。

The first step, get started. It may seem obvious, but studies have shown starting a project to be the biggest barrier to productivity. Before starting, our brain visualizes the hardest parts to come, and instead, tries to simulate real work by focusing on small mindless tasks.
第一步,開始行動。這也許看起來很明顯,但研究顯示,開始一項企劃是生產力的最大障礙。在開始之前,我們的腦袋會將未來會遇到最困難的部分形象化,然後藉由專注在不需動腦的小任務上,來嘗試模擬真正的工作。

Luckily, there's a construct of the mind, known as the Zeigarnik Effect, which compels humans to finish a task that they've already started. The Zeigarnik Effect shows that when we don't finish a task, we experience discomfort and intrusive thoughts about it. So get started, now.
幸運的是,有種稱作蔡格尼效應的心理概念,能強迫人們完成他們已開始的工作。蔡格尼效應表明,當工作還沒完成時,我們會感到不安以及紛亂的思緒。所以現在就開始吧。

What about time management? Shockingly, when we look at some of the most elite musicians in the world, we find that they aren't necessarily practicing more, but instead, more deliberately. This is because they spend more time focused on the hardest task and focus their energy in packets.
那時間管理呢?令人訝異的是,當我們看著那些世界上最傑出的音樂家,我們會發現他們並不一定多加練習,而是要更加從容地練習。這是因為他們花較多時間專注在最困難的工作上,並將精力分批集中。

Instead of diluting their effort over the entire day, they have periods of intense work followed by breaks, not relying on willpower, they rely on a habit and disciplined scheduling.
他們不將精力分散在一整天,而是在短暫休息後接著一段一段密集的工作,無須仰賴意志力,他們仰賴的是作息和規律的時間安排。

Studies have found that the most elite violinist in the world, generally follow a ninety minutes work regime with the 15-to-20-minute break afterwards. Instead of trying to maintain energy throughout the entire day, breaking it down into sessions with planned relaxation is most effective.
研究發現世界上最傑出的小提琴家,大致上都採用每次工作九十分鐘,休息十五到二十分鐘的制度。試著維持整天精力充沛不是最有效率的,分成小段時間並加上計畫好的放鬆時間是才最有效率的。

But how can you develop the discipline to follow this routine? One key component is giving yourself a deadline. Write it down, mark it in your calendar, and you'll be much more likely to complete your task.
但你要如何養成紀律來遵循這個常規呢?一個關鍵要素是為自己設定最後期限。寫下來,記在日曆上,你將會更有可能完成工作。

On top of this, create something called an accountability chart to document your progress. In one column, write the time span, and in the other, the activities you accomplished during this time.
除此之外,製作一種叫做責任表的東西來記錄你的進度。其中一欄,寫上時間長度,另一欄則寫上你在這段時間完成的活動。

Similar to those on a diet who document their food intake, writing down your progress allows you to realistically evaluate your work, as opposed to inaccurately assuming what you've done. Furthermore, tracking your progress helps to avoid small, mindless work.
這很像減肥的人記錄他們的食物攝取一樣,寫下進度能讓你實際地評估你的工作,而不會錯誤地假設你所完成的事。此外,記錄進度有助於避免無需用腦的小工作。

And finally, stop multitasking. Well, it may feel like you're accomplishing more, studies show that multitaskers are much less productive. Instead, try and make a list at night of what you want to accomplish tomorrow.
最後,別再一心多用。嗯,可能你會感覺完成更多事,但研究表明一心多用的人是比較沒生產力的。想辦法晚上時列出你明天想要完成的工作項目。

This way, you hit the ground running with your action plan and avoid trying to complete multiple activities at once. While you're at it, split up your large tasks into smaller bite-size ones. Your brain will find these less daunting, and it will make the starting process easier. With a clear goal and action plan in mind, your productivity levels can soar to new heights.
這樣一來,你有了行動計畫就能夠馬上全力投入你的工作,並避免一次完成多項活動。當你工作時,把重大工作分成能一手掌握的小工作。你的頭腦會覺得這些工作較不令人卻步,而且它會使得一開始的過程簡單些。在心中保有清楚的目標以及行動計畫,你的生產力等級就能飆升到新高。

Want more tips and information on productivity? Check out Gregory Ciotti's blog Sparring Mind, who we worked with to make this video. We'll link to the productivity article in the description where you can find even more information, and be sure to sign up for his newsletter, which covers other amazing brainy content.
想要更多有關生產力的秘訣及資訊?看看Gregory Ciotti的部落格《Sparring Mind》,他和我們合力製作出這支影片。我們會將生產力文章連結到底下說明部分,在那裡你能找到更多資訊,還有務必訂閱他的電子報,內容涵蓋了其他神奇、博學的內容。

Got a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments or on facebook and twitter, and subscribe for more weekly science videos.
你有燃眉之急的問題想要解答嗎?在留言中發問吧,或在facebook和twitter上發問,並訂閱以獲得更多的每周科學影片。

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