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「奧托‧迪克斯:〈記者席維亞‧馮‧哈德肖像〉」- Dix, Portrait of Sylvia von Harden, 1926


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We are looking at Otto Dix's painting. It's Portrait of Sylvia von Harden and it's from 1926.
我們正在欣賞奧托‧迪克斯的畫作。這是〈記者席維亞‧馮‧哈德肖像〉,它是1926年繪製的。

Who was Sylvia von Harden?
誰是席維亞‧馮‧哈德?

Sylvia von Harden was a fantastic, fabulous figure, who was not actually a journalist, even though the title says that she's a journalist. She was less of a journalist but actually a poet and a short story writer who worked in Germany.
席維亞‧馮‧哈德是一個古怪的、絕妙的人物,她其實不是一位記者,雖然那頭銜顯示她是位記者。她比較不像記者,反而其實是一個在德國工作的詩人及短篇故事作家。

And this shows her in the Romanisches Cafe in Berlin, which was a huge hangout for all of the cool avant-garde artists and writers and poets of the 1920s. So Sylvia von Harden is pictured here in this little corner where she would have hung out at a little cafe table.
這畫出了她在柏林的羅馬咖啡館裡,那兒是1920年代所有優秀的前衛派藝術家、作家、和詩人的大型聚會處。所以席維亞‧馮‧哈德在這個她會在一張小咖啡桌旁消磨時間的小角落這裡被描繪出來。

She was an avant-garde of neue frau. And she was friendly with various artists and poets and writers of the era.
她是個前衛派的新女性(德文)。她和那時代許多藝術家、詩人和作家都很友好。

So neue frau is the new woman in Germany in the early 20th century. And we're in between the Great War and World War II here. And the new woman is that the woman in the public sphere who goes out and works.
所以neue frau是二十世紀早期德國的新女性之意。我們在第一次世界大戰及第二次世界大戰之間這裡。新女性就是在公共領域外出及工作的女性。

She has close-cropped hair, I see, which makes her rather androgynous. Her hands are very large. Do these things have to do with representing the new woman in a work of art, perhaps?
她留著超短髮,我看到了,這讓她十分雌雄莫辨。她的雙手非常大。或許,這些事情和在藝術作品中要表現出新女性有關?

It does. It has to do with the new woman in general, but it also has to do with Otto Dix's style of portraiture. One thing that Otto Dix was famed for was making his sitters quite ugly and quite unattractive.
那是有關的。它通常和新女性有關,但它同樣也和奧托‧迪克斯的肖像畫風有關。奧托‧迪克斯知名的其中一件事就是讓主角變得很醜、很沒吸引力。

Sylvia von Harden does look like this in real life but not to quite the extent that Dix shows her. So that, things like her hair—she did have a close-cropped haircut. In Germany this cut had a very funny specific name, called the Bubikopf, which was in style all throughout the 20s. She did have a sort of androgynous appearance.
席維亞‧馮‧哈德確實在現實生活中看起來像這樣,但不太像迪克斯畫她的那程度。所以,像是她頭髮的東西--她確實有頭超短髮髮型。在德國這種髮型有個非常有趣的特定名稱,叫小男孩頭(德文),這在整個二零年代都很流行。她確實有種可男可女的外表。

And this dress is actually based on a dress that she actually wore. And so it does have a lot of basis in reality. But things like her hands, he elongates and sort of creates these immense hands.
這套洋裝其實是以她實際穿的洋裝為基礎。所以它有很多現實的根據。但像是她的手的東西,他拉長了,且有點創作出這些巨大的手掌。

And I think that has a lot to do with sort of deflection and kind of placement as it draws your attention to things like the area where her breasts should be, which because she's such an androgynous figure, she doesn't really have any.
我認為這和某種偏差和那種布置有很大的關係,因為它將你的注意力拉到像是她胸部應該在的位置這種事情,而因為她是這麼一個雌雄莫辨的角色,她其實一點都沒有(胸部)。

She's wearing this very kind of geometric-patterned dress that hides any kind of feminine figure that she might have. She's covered up. I mean, it even has a turtleneck so we don't even get to see her neck. And then you see the other hand kind of draped across her lap, covering it up. But there are other elements that you might be able to see that signal different things.
她穿著藏起她可能會有的任何女性形象的這麼一套幾何圖樣洋裝。她被掩蓋起來。我是說,這衣服甚至還有個高領子好讓我們甚至看不到她的脖子。接著你看到另一支手有點蓋過她的大腿、將其掩蓋。但還有其他你也許能夠看到、暗示不同意義的元素。

In the body?
在身體上嗎?

If you look actually at this great detail—the sagging stocking—you can kind of see, and that's a really great moment of realism that Dix captures. You don't want to have your stockings be shown as sagging. It sort of implies a kind of messiness. She doesn't seem to have a very polished kind of air about her. But on the other hand, it kind of gives her this sort of subversive quality.
如果你確實看到這個重要的細節--那鬆垂的長襪--你可以稍微看到,那是迪克斯捕捉的現實主義中非常美好的片刻。你不會想要讓你的長襪以鬆垂的狀態被展示出來。那有點暗示一種髒亂感。她似乎沒有一種關於她非常優雅的神態。但在另一方面,那有點給了她這種顛覆傳統般的特質。

She's sitting there and she's looking out. She has a monocle even. I mean, she has these particular features, all these little accessories that pinpoint her as a particular kind of woman—the sagging stocking, the large hands, the monocle which highlights the kind of sight and gaze that a new woman might have.
她正坐在那兒,且她正向外看。她甚至有副單片眼鏡。我是說,她有這些獨有的特色,所有這些凸顯她為一位特殊女性的小附屬品--鬆垮的長襪、大手、強調了新女性也許會有的那種視線及凝視的單片眼鏡。

And then she has cigarettes. She's smoking in a public place. That's all kind of building a particular sort of identity for this character, and Dix was really talented at doing that in his painting.
接著她有香煙。她在公共場合抽煙。那整個就是好像為了這個角色建立起一種特殊身分,而迪克斯非常擅長在他的畫作中那麼做。

The patterned dress seems to really emphasize a sense of surface and flatness instead of her body. Her neck seems very cylindrical and almost mechanical rather than a human organic form as well.
那圖樣洋裝似乎確實強調了一種表面和平坦感,而不是她的身體。她的脖子也看似非常地圓柱狀且幾乎像機械一樣,而不是人類的器官型態。

I think one of the things that I like about this painting, too, is the way that Dix uses this kind of geometric sort of areas and shapes and throws it into contrast with, if you see behind her, she's sitting on this really ornately patterned chair. So those kind of curves are more feminine than her body is, which I think is a great kind of a comment to make.
我認為關於這幅畫我也喜歡的其中一件事,是迪克斯利用這種幾何類型的空間和形狀,並將其進行對照,如果你看她身後,她正坐在這張圖樣非常過分裝飾的椅子上。所以那種曲線比她的身體還要更女性化,我認為這是能做出的一種很棒的解釋。

Then there's the circle of her monocle; there's the circle of the marble table; the circle of the glass, which has a very particular kind of cocktail in it that was popular at the time. So those things, and then things that are longer and flatter, like her body, which really should be the least flat, you know, if you're thinking about what bodies look like.
接著有她那單片眼鏡的圓形;有那張大理石桌的圓形;杯子的圓形,杯中有當時非常受歡迎的特殊種類雞尾酒。所以那些事情,然後那些更長、更平坦的東西,像是她的身體,確實應該是最不平坦的,你知道,如果你想想看身體看起來是怎樣的話。

Are bodies in round and sort of curvaceous and sensual things or are they in kind of desexualized, androgenized forms which Dix does here?
身體是圓的、有點曲線美、且喜愛感官享受的東西嗎?或是它們是以迪克斯在這裡創造出的那種除去性別特徵、可男可女的形式呢?

And we should probably contextualize this in terms of the new objectivity, or neue Sachlichkeit.
我們應該也許要在新客觀主義、也就是neue Sachlichkeit(德文)方面的背景下一併考慮這點。

Yes, Sachlichkeit. Yes!
是的,Sachlichkeit。是的!

Which was occurring at this time, a movement in between the wars, which went back to a bit more of a figural style, a bit more naturalism—relatively more naturalistic than what one might be familiar with in terms of Kirchner or German expressionism or Kandinsky, of course, other artists who were working in Germany at the time. Why going back to this style, which is a bit more naturalistic?
那是在此時發生的,在兩次大戰之間的運動,那回到有點更具像化的,有點更自然主義的--相對來說更自然主義,比起人們可能在Kirchner(德國畫家) 、或是德國表現主義、或是Kandinsky(俄國畫家)方面更加熟悉的那種自然主義,當然,還有其他當時在德國工作的藝術家。為什麼要回到這種風格,那是有點更自然主義的?

Well, I think that the realism is, there are many things that are important about it at this time, but this is 1926. There's this sort of general sense in Germany. This is going on in other countries in Europe as well, kind of a return to order, kind of looking back at tradition, a kind of sense that they wanted to create something new, but they wanted it to have a particular kind of meaning and a rootedness in something that was very German.
這個嘛,我認為現實主義是,有許多在此時關於自然主義來說很重要的事,但此時是1926年。在德國有這種一般的觀念。這也在歐洲其他國家進行,有點是回歸秩序,有點回顧傳統,有點他們想要創造出某些全新東西的概念,但他們想要它有種特殊的意義,且在某個非常德國風格的事物中根深蒂固。

So Otto Dix is really looking back to traditions of portraiture in Germany. He looks back to Holbein who creates, you know, incredibly important portraits and sort of, you know, bringing out that kind of German quality.
所以奧托‧迪克斯確實回顧了德國肖像畫的傳統。他回顧了,你知道,創造出極其重要的肖像畫的霍爾拜因,還有點,你知道,帶出了那種德國特質。

Holbein's hyper-naturalistic, isn't he?
霍爾拜因是超級自然主義的,不是嗎?

Yes, he is hyper-naturalistic. What he does is he takes naturalism and realism and he sort of lifts it to another level, where it almost is caricature. So it kind of falls between that. And a lot of neue Sachlichkeit painters did that—a kind of photographic realism, almost, but also taken to an extreme.
是的,他是非常自然主義的。他做的事是他採用自然主義及現實主義,且他有點將其帶到另一種水準,幾乎是漫畫手法的程度。所以它有點落在那之間。有許多新客觀主義(德文)的畫家那麼做--有點生動的現實主義,幾乎,但同樣也被帶到極限。

That's interesting that it's characterized as a kind of call to order or a return to order, while we're representing someone who is apparently overturning some very longstanding gender hierarchies and ordered ways of thinking about men and women as very separate. The new woman, particularly as it's embodied here by Sylvia, seems to be confounding those categories rather than reveling in how neat and ordered they are.
有趣的是它被描繪成一種要求秩序或是回歸秩序,雖然我們正代表著某個人,某個很明顯在推翻某些非常悠久的性別階級制度、以及推翻認為男女是非常不同的固有模式的人。

The new woman, particularly as it's embodied here by Sylvia, seems to be confounding those categories rather than reveling in how neat and ordered they are.
新女性,特別是當它在這兒由席維亞體現時,似乎正使那些類型混淆,而不是著迷於它們多麼整潔、有秩序。

Well, she's definitely about sort of overturning things. And you know, even her name is actually made up. It's a pseudonym. She changed her name when she started her writing career. She's not a huge, very popular writer, but she's one of many poets and writers who are working on different pieces that are published in small journals that, you know, very small kind of audiences have read.
這個嘛,她絕對有點是為了要推翻事物。你知道,甚至她的名字其實都是杜撰的。那是筆名。她在她開始寫作職業時更改了名字。她不是個非常大牌、非常知名的作家,但她是諸多致力於在小型期刊上發表的不同作品的詩人及作家之一,你知道,就是那種非常小眾的觀眾會讀的期刊。

But she's definitely overturning different kinds of cultural stereotypes and gender stereotypes, and kind of in that space of subversion in the cafe culture of Germany at the time.
但她確實在推翻 不同種類的文化刻板印象及性別刻板印象,似乎就在當時德國咖啡文化中那種顛覆的空間。

What did Dix's sitters think about the fact that he liked to make people ugly? Did that bother them?
迪克斯畫作的主角對於他喜歡讓人們看起來醜陋的事實有什麼想法?那有讓他們不開心嗎?

You know, sometimes it did. A lot of times it was almost like a privilege to be painted by Dix and portrayed in this particularly ugly kind of way. But one or two sitters did have a problem with it, depending on if he was commissioned by sitters because he was so well-known, and at this point, in '26, he's very well-known for his painting style. But earlier than that, some of his more wealthy business clients did not particularly like the way that they were painted.
你知道嗎,有時候會讓他們不開心。很多時候讓迪克斯畫肖像及被這種醜陋的獨有方式描繪是一種榮幸。但一兩個主角確實對此有意見,取決於他是否是讓畫中主角委派的,因為他是這麼知名,而且此時,在1926年,他因他的畫風而極其出名。但在那稍早,他的某些更有錢的企業顧客確實不特別喜愛他們被描繪的那種方式。

Sylvia von Harden, as far as I know, loved the way that this painting worked. She even sat with it. It's at the Pompidou Center now. In the '60s she even sat and had a photograph taken of herself in front of the portrait. And you can see even, at that point, that she still sort of looks a little bit like the figure in it.
席維亞‧馮‧哈德,就我所知,喜歡這幅畫繪製的方式。她甚至與它同坐。它現在在法國龐畢度中心。在六零年代,她甚至坐下,並讓人照了張她自己在肖像畫前頭的照片。你可以看到,即使在那時,她還是看起來有點像畫中的主角。
I just think it's a great portrait.
我就是覺得這是幅很棒的肖像畫。

  • 「雖然、即使」- Even Though

    Sylvia von Harden was a fantastic, fabulous figure, who was not actually a journalist, even though the title says that she's a journalist.
    席維亞‧馮‧哈德是一個古怪的、絕妙的人物,她其實不是一位記者,雖然那頭銜顯示她是位記者。

  • 「和...有關」- Have To Do With

    Do these things have to do with representing the new woman in a work of art, perhaps?
    或許,這些事情和在藝術作品中要表現出新女性有關?

  • 「通常、一般」- In General

    It does. It has to do with the new woman in general, but it also has to do with Otto Dix's style of portraiture.
    那是有關的。它通常和新女性有關,但它同樣也和奧托‧迪克斯的肖像畫風有關。

  • 「掩蓋、遮住」- Cover Up

    She's covered up. I mean, it even has a turtleneck so we don't even get to see her neck.
    她被掩蓋起來。我是說,這衣服甚至還有個高領子好讓我們甚至看不到她的脖子。

  • 「就...而言」- As Far As

    Sylvia von Harden, as far as I know, loved the way that this painting worked.
    席維亞‧馮‧哈德,就我所知,喜歡這幅畫繪製的方式。

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