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「畢卡索的一生」- Pablo Picasso Biography


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Pablo Picasso was one of the greatest artist of the 20th century, and was the co-founder of the cubist artist movement. Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain in 1881 to a middle-class family. He showed a talent for art at a young age, and received formal training from his father, who is an artist and museum curator.
巴布羅·畢卡索是二十世紀最偉大的藝術家之一,也是立體派藝術家運動的聯合創始人。畢卡索在1881年出生於西班牙馬拉加一戶中產階級家庭。他在年輕時就展現出藝術天份,並從他的父親那接受正規訓練,他的父親是一名藝術家及美術館館長。

In 1895, Picasso's sister died of diphtheria, and the family moved to Barcelona, where his father began working in the Barcelona School of Fine Arts. Picasso's father then persuaded the academy to allow the 13-year-old Picasso to take the entrance exam. And he was admitted in only one week into the often month-long admission program.
在1895年,畢卡索的妹妹死於白喉,他們家搬到巴塞隆納,在那他的父親開始在巴塞隆納藝術學校任職。畢卡索的父親接著說服學校允許十三歲的畢卡索參加入學考試。他在短短一週就申請到通常要花上一個月申請的科系。

Picasso's father then sent him to the Royal Academy in Madrid. But he stopped attending classes shortly after enrollment, and then moved between Paris and Spain, often living in poverty and desperation.
畢卡索的父親接著送他到馬德里皇家學院。但他在註冊不久後就停止去上課,然後於巴黎及西班牙間移動,通常活在貧困及絕望中。

He began experimenting with a number of new artistic style after finally settling in Paris in 1904, and met Fernande Olivier, a bohemian artist who appears in many paintings during Picasso's Rose Period.
在1904年終於在巴黎安頓後,他開始實驗許多新的藝術風格,並認識了費爾南德·奧利弗--一位在畢卡索玫瑰時期中出現在許多畫作上的波希米亞藝術家。

Picasso then joined the gallery in Paris, where he met a fellow artist named Georges Braque. Picasso worked closely with Braque and produced his revolutionary work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which introduced the new style of Cubism to the world.
畢卡索再來加入了巴黎的藝廊,在那他認識了名叫喬治·布拉克的藝術家同伴。畢卡索與布拉克密切合作,並創作出他革命性的作品〈亞維農的少女〉,這將立體派的新風格引進了世界。

Picasso then began attaching cloth, newspaper, and other items to his paintings and created the collage style. He then moved from style to style, and in 1918, married Olga Khokhlova, who he met while designing a ballet in Rome. Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, but this clashed with Picasso's bohemian lifestyle, and they legally separated until Khokhlova's death in 1955.
然後畢卡索開始將布料、報紙、還有其他物品貼上他的畫作,並創作拼貼風格。他接著在不同風格間游移,且在1918年娶了歐嘉·科克洛瓦,她是他在羅馬設計芭蕾舞時認識的女子。科克洛瓦將畢卡索引入上流社會,但這與畢卡索放蕩不羈的生活型態相悖,他們依法分居直到科克洛瓦在1955年過世。

After the outbreak of World War II, Picasso remained in German-occupied Paris and continued to paint, but did not exhibit during this time as he believed that his paintings would not fit with the Nazi ideals of perfect art. He produced works such as Still Life with a Guitar and the The Charnel House during this time. He also produced his famous work Guernica and several sculptural pieces during the Spanish Civil War.
在第二次世界大戰爆發後,畢卡索留在遭德國佔領的巴黎,並持續作畫,但在這段時間中並沒有展覽,因為他相信他的畫作並不符合納粹對於完美藝術的理想典範。他在這段時間中創作出像是〈吉他靜物畫〉以及〈停屍間〉的畫作。他同樣也在西班牙內戰期間創作出他知名的畫作〈格爾尼卡〉以及數件雕塑作品。

Picasso embarked on many affairs during his life and fathered several children by his various young mistresses. He died in 1973 in Mougins, France—a worldwide celebrity for a legacy of estimated 50,000 works including painting, sculptures, ceramics, tapestries, and rugs.
畢卡索在他的人生中進行許多風流韻事,並和他不同的年輕情婦生下幾個小孩。他在1973年時於法國穆然過世--因為那包括畫作、雕像、陶藝、壁毯及地毯等預估五萬件遺作而享譽全球的名人。

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