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《HOPE English 希平方》服務條款關於個人資料收集與使用之規定

隱私權政策
上次更新日期:2014-12-30

希平方 為一英文學習平台,我們每天固定上傳優質且豐富的影片內容,讓您不但能以有趣的方式學習英文,還能增加內涵,豐富知識。我們非常注重您的隱私,以下說明為當您使用我們平台時,我們如何收集、使用、揭露、轉移及儲存你的資料。請您花一些時間熟讀我們的隱私權做法,我們歡迎您的任何疑問或意見,提供我們將產品、服務、內容、廣告做得更好。

本政策涵蓋的內容包括:希平方 如何處理蒐集或收到的個人資料。
本隱私權保護政策只適用於: 希平方 平台,不適用於非 希平方 平台所有或控制的公司,也不適用於非 希平方 僱用或管理之人。

個人資料的收集與使用
當您註冊 希平方 平台時,我們會詢問您姓名、電子郵件、出生日期、職位、行業及個人興趣等資料。在您註冊完 希平方 帳號並登入我們的服務後,我們就能辨認您的身分,讓您使用更完整的服務,或參加相關宣傳、優惠及贈獎活動。希平方 也可能從商業夥伴或其他公司處取得您的個人資料,並將這些資料與 希平方 所擁有的您的個人資料相結合。

我們所收集的個人資料, 將用於通知您有關 希平方 最新產品公告、軟體更新,以及即將發生的事件,也可用以協助改進我們的服務。

我們也可能使用個人資料為內部用途。例如:稽核、資料分析、研究等,以改進 希平方公司 產品、服務及客戶溝通。

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希平方 自動接收並記錄您電腦和瀏覽器上的資料,包括 IP 位址、希平方 cookie 中的資料、軟體和硬體屬性以及您瀏覽的網頁紀錄。

隱私權政策修訂
我們會不定時修正與變更《隱私權政策》,不會在未經您明確同意的情況下,縮減本《隱私權政策》賦予您的權利。隱私權政策變更時一律會在本頁發佈;如果屬於重大變更,我們會提供更明顯的通知 (包括某些服務會以電子郵件通知隱私權政策的變更)。我們還會將本《隱私權政策》的舊版加以封存,方便您回顧。

服務條款
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上次更新日期:2013-09-09

歡迎您加入看 ”希平方”
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本服務條款訂立的目的,是為了保護會員以及所有使用者(以下稱會員)的權益,並構成會員與本服務提供者之間的契約,在使用者完成註冊手續前,應詳細閱讀本服務條款之全部條文,一旦您按下「註冊」按鈕,即表示您已知悉、並完全同意本服務條款的所有約定。如您是法律上之無行為能力人或限制行為能力人(如未滿二十歲之未成年人),則您在加入會員前,請將本服務條款交由您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)閱讀,並得到其同意,您才可註冊及使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務。當您開始使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務時,則表示您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)已經閱讀、了解並同意本服務條款。 我們可能會修改本條款或適用於本服務之任何額外條款,以(例如)反映法律之變更或本服務之變動。您應定期查閱本條款內容。這些條款如有修訂,我們會在本網頁發佈通知。變更不會回溯適用,並將於公布變更起十四天或更長時間後方始生效。不過,針對本服務新功能的變更,或基於法律理由而為之變更,將立即生效。如果您不同意本服務之修訂條款,則請停止使用該本服務。

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兒童及青少年之保護 兒童及青少年上網已經成為無可避免之趨勢,使用網際網路獲取知識更可以培養子女的成熟度與競爭能力。然而網路上的確存有不適宜兒童及青少年接受的訊息,例如色情與暴力的訊息,兒童及青少年有可能因此受到心靈與肉體上的傷害。因此,為確保兒童及青少年使用網路的安全,並避免隱私權受到侵犯,家長(或監護人)應先檢閱各該網站是否有保護個人資料的「隱私權政策」,再決定是否同意提出相關的個人資料;並應持續叮嚀兒童及青少年不可洩漏自己或家人的任何資料(包括姓名、地址、電話、電子郵件信箱、照片、信用卡號等)給任何人。

為了維護 希平方 網站安全,我們需要您的協助:

您承諾絕不為任何非法目的或以任何非法方式使用本服務,並承諾遵守中華民國相關法規及一切使用網際網路之國際慣例。您若係中華民國以外之使用者,並同意遵守所屬國家或地域之法令。您同意並保證不得利用本服務從事侵害他人權益或違法之行為,包括但不限於:
A. 侵害他人名譽、隱私權、營業秘密、商標權、著作權、專利權、其他智慧財產權及其他權利;
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服務中斷或暫停
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版權宣告
上次更新日期:2013-09-16

希平方 內所有資料之著作權、所有權與智慧財產權,包括翻譯內容、程式與軟體均為 希平方 所有,須經希平方同意合法才得以使用。
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網站連結
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「Kashfia Rahman:冒險對青少年大腦帶來的影響」- How Risk-Taking Changes a Teenager's Brain


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Have you ever tried to understand a teenager? It's exhausting, right? You must be puzzled by the fact that some teens do well in school, lead clubs and teams and volunteer in their communities, but they eat Tide Pods for an online challenge, speed and text while driving, binge drink and experiment with illicit drugs. How can so many teens be so smart, skilled and responsible—and careless risk-takers at the same time?

When I was 16, while frequently observing my peers in person as well as on social media, I began to wonder why so many teens took such crazy risks. It seems like getting a certificate from DARE class in the fifth grade can't stop them.

What was even more alarming to me was that the more they exposed themselves to these harmful risks, the easier it became for them to continue taking risks. Now this confused me, but it also made me incredibly curious. So, as someone with a name that literally means "to explore knowledge," I started searching for a scientific explanation.

Now, it's no secret that teens ages 13 to 18 are more prone to risk-taking than children or adults, but what makes them so daring? Do they suddenly become reckless, or is this just a natural phase that they're going through? Well neuroscientists have already found evidence that the teen brain is still in the process of maturation—and that this makes them exceptionally poor at decision-making, causing them to fall prey to risky behaviors. But in that case, if the maturing brain is to blame, then why are teens more vulnerable than children, even though their brains are more developed than those of children? Also, not all teens in the world take risks at the same level. Are there some other underlying or unintentional causes driving them to risk-taking? Well, this is exactly what I decided to research.

So, I founded my research on the basis of a psychological process known as "habituation," or simply what we refer to as "getting used to it." Habituation explains how our brains adapt to some behaviors, like lying, with repeated exposures. And this concept inspired me to design a project to determine if the same principle could be applied to the relentless rise of risk-taking in teenagers. So I predicted that habituation to risk-taking may have the potential to change the already-vulnerable teenage brain by blunting or even eradicating the negative emotions associated with risk, like fear or guilt. I also thought because they would feel less fearful and guilty, this desensitization would lead them to even more risk-taking. In short, I wanted to conduct a research study to answer one big question: Why do teens keep making outrageous choices that are harmful to their health and well-being?

But there was one big obstacle in my way. To investigate this problem, I needed teenagers to experiment on, laboratories and devices to measure their brain activity, and teachers or professors to supervise me and guide me along the way. I needed resources. But, you see, I attended a high school in South Dakota with limited opportunity for scientific exploration. My school had athletics, band, choir, debate and other clubs, but there were no STEM programs or research mentors. And the notion of high schoolers doing research or participating in a science fair was completely foreign. Simply put, I didn't exactly have the ingredients to make a chef-worthy dish.

And these obstacles were frustrating, but I was also a stubborn teenager. And as the daughter of Bangladeshi immigrants and one of just a handful of Muslim students in my high school in South Dakota, I often struggled to fit in. And I wanted to be someone with something to contribute to society, not just be deemed the scarf-wearing brown girl who was an anomaly in my homogenous hometown. I hoped that by doing this research, I could establish this and how valuable scientific exploration could be for kids like me who didn't necessarily find their niche elsewhere.

So with limited research opportunities, inventiveness allowed me to overcome seemingly impossible obstacles. I became more creative in working with a variety of methodologies, materials and subjects. I transformed my unassuming school library into a laboratory and my peers into lab rats.

My enthusiastic geography teacher, who also happens to be my school's football coach, ended up as my cheerleader, becoming my mentor to sign necessary paperwork. And when it became logistically impossible to use a laboratory electroencephalography, or EEG, which are those electrode devices used to measure emotional responses, I bought a portable EEG headset with my own money, instead of buying the new iPhone X that a lot of kids my age were saving up for.

So finally I started the research with 86 students, ages 13 to 18, from my high school. Using the computer cubicles in my school library, I had them complete a computerized decision-making simulation to measure their risk-taking behaviors comparable to ones in the real world, like alcohol use, drug use and gambling. Wearing the EEG headset, the students completed the test 12 times over three days to mimic repeated risk exposures. A control panel on the EEG headset measured their various emotional responses: like attention, interest, excitement, frustration, guilt, stress levels and relaxation. They also rated their emotions on well-validated emotion-measuring scales. This meant that I had measured the process of habituation and its effects on decision-making. And it took 29 days to complete this research. And with months of frantically drafting proposals, meticulously computing data in a caffeinated daze at 2am, I was able to finalize my results. And the results showed that habituation to risk-taking could actually change a teen's brain by altering their emotional levels, causing greater risk-taking. The students' emotions that were normally associated with risks, like fear, stress, guilt and nervousness, as well as attention, were high when they were first exposed to the risk simulator. This curbed their temptations and enforced self-control, which prevented them from taking more risks. However, the more they were exposed to the risks through the simulator, the less fearful, guilty and stressed they became. This caused a situation in which they were no longer able to feel the brain's natural fear and caution instincts. And also, because they are teenagers and their brains are still underdeveloped, they became more interested and excited in thrill-seeking behaviors.

So what were the consequences? They lacked self-control for logical decision-making, took greater risks and made more harmful choices. So the developing brain alone isn't to blame. The process of habituation also plays a key role in risk-taking and risk escalation. Although a teen's willingness to seek risk is largely a result of the structural and functional changes associated with their developing brains, the dangerous part that my research was able to highlight was that a habituation to risks can actually physically change a teen's brain and cause greater risk-taking. So it's the combination of the immature teen brain and the impact of habituation that is like a perfect storm to create more damaging effects. And this research can help parents and the general public understand that teens aren't just willfully ignoring warnings or simply defying parents by engaging in increasingly more dangerous behavior. The biggest hurdle they're facing is their habituation to risks: all the physical, detectable and emotional functional changes that drive and control and influence their over-the-top risk-taking.

So yes, we need policies that provide safer environments and limit exposures to high risks, but we also need policies that reflect this insight. These results are a wake-up call for teens, too. It shows them that the natural and necessary fear and guilt that protect them from unsafe situations actually become numb when they repeatedly choose risky behaviors.

So with this hope to share my findings with fellow teenagers and scientists, I took my research to the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, or ISEF, a culmination of over 1,800 students from 75 countries, regions and territories, who showcase their cutting-edge research and inventions. It's like the Olympics of science fair.

There, I was able to present my research to experts in neuroscience and psychology and garner valuable feedback. But perhaps the most memorable moment of the week was when the booming speakers suddenly uttered my name during the awards ceremony. I was in such disbelief that I questioned myself: Was this just another "La La Land" blunder like at the Oscars?

Luckily, it wasn't. I really had won first place in the category "Behavioral and Social Sciences."

Needless to say, I was not only thrilled to have this recognition, but also the whole experience of science fair that validated my efforts keeps my curiosity alive and strengthens my creativity, perseverance and imagination. This still image of me experimenting in my school library may seem ordinary, but to me, it represents a sort of inspiration. It reminds me that this process taught me to take risks. And I know that might sound incredibly ironic. But I took risks realizing that unforeseen opportunities often come from risk-taking—not the hazardous, negative type that I studied, but the good ones, the positive risks.

The more risks I took, the more capable I felt of withstanding my unconventional circumstances, leading to more tolerance, resilience and patience for completing my project. And these lessons have led me to new ideas like: Is the opposite of negative risk-taking also true? Can positive risk-taking escalate with repeated exposures? Does positive action build positive brain functioning?

I think I just might have my next research idea.

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