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「【TED】故事中的英雄冒險,現實中的成功模式」- What Makes a Hero?


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What do Harry Potter, Katniss Everdeen, and Frodo all have in common with the heroes of ancient myths? What if I told you they are all variants of the same hero? Do you believe that? Joseph Campbell did. He studied myths from all over the world and published a book called The Hero with a Thousand Faces, retelling dozens of stories and explaining how each represents the monomyth, or hero's journey.
哈利波特、凱妮絲還有佛羅多,他們全都和古代神話中的英雄有什麼共同點呢?如果我告訴你他們全是同一個英雄的化身呢?你相信嗎?Joseph Campbell 就信。他研究世界各地的神話,並出版一本名叫《千面英雄》的書,重述許多故事,並說明每一個故事如何表現出這種單一神話,也就是英雄的旅途。

So, what is the hero's journey? Think of it as a cycle: The journey begins and ends in the hero's ordinary world, but the quest passes through an unfamiliar, special world. Along the way, there are some key events. Think about your favorite book or movie. Does it follow this pattern?
那麼,什麼是英雄的旅途呢?把它想成一種輪迴:這趟旅程的起點和終點都在英雄的一般世界中,不過冒險之旅則會通過一個陌生、奇特的世界。沿途中會有一些關鍵事件發生。想想你最喜歡的書或電影。它是否遵循這種模式呢?

Status quo—that's where we start.
現狀--我們的起點。

One o'clock: Call to Adventure. The hero receives a mysterious message—an invitation? A challenge?
一點鐘:冒險的召喚。英雄收到一則神秘的訊息--一封邀請?一個挑戰?

Two o'clock: Assistance. The hero needs some help, probably from someone older, wiser.
兩點鐘:支援。英雄需要一些幫忙,或許是某個比較年長、有智慧的人會伸出援手。

Three o'clock: Departure. The hero crosses the threshold from his normal, safe home and enters the special world and adventure. We're not in Kansas anymore.
三點鐘:啟程。英雄踏出他平凡安穩的家門檻,進入不一樣的世界和冒險之旅。我們不再處於熟悉的地方了。

Four o'clock: Trials. Being a hero is hard work. Our hero solves a riddle, slays a monster, escapes from a trap.
四點鐘:試煉。當英雄是件苦差事。我們的英雄破解謎題、斬妖屠魔、逃脫陷阱。

Five o'clock: Approach. It's time to face the biggest ordeal—the hero's worst fear.
五點鐘:步步逼近。是時候面對最艱困的考驗了--英雄最深沉的恐懼。

Six o'clock: Crisis. This is the hero's darkest hour. He faces death and possibly even dies, only to be reborn.
六點鐘:危機。這是英雄最黑暗的時刻。他遭遇死亡,甚至可能真的喪命,不過一切卻是為了浴火重生。

Seven o'clock: Treasure. As a result, the hero claims some treasure, special recognition, or power.
七點鐘:寶藏。因此,英雄獲得某種寶物、特殊獎賞,或力量。

Eight o'clock: Result. This can vary between stories. Do the monsters bow down before the hero, or do they chase him as he flees from the special world?
八點鐘:結果。不同的故事可能會有不同結果。怪物們向英雄臣服,還是牠們在英雄逃離那個獨特世界時緊追在後?

Nine o'clock: Return. After all that adventure, the hero returns to his ordinary world.
九點鐘:回歸。在整趟冒險歷程後,英雄回歸平凡世界。

Ten o'clock: New Life. This quest has changed the hero. He has outgrown his old life.
十點鐘:新生活。這趟冒險之旅改變了英雄。他已經不再是昔日的自己。

Eleven o'clock: Resolution. All the tangled plot lines get straightened out.
十一點鐘:揭曉。所有混亂的情節都獲得解答。

Twelve o'clock: Status Quo—but upgraded to a new level. Nothing is quite the same once you're a hero.
十二點鐘:現狀--不過提升到全新境界。當了英雄後,一切就不一樣了。

Many popular books and movies follow this ancient formula pretty closely, but let's see how well The Hunger Games fits the hero's journey template. When does Katniss Everdeen hear her call to adventure that gets the story moving? When her sister's name is called from the lottery. How about assistance? Is anyone going to help her on her adventure? Haymitch. What about departure? Does she leave her ordinary world? She gets on a train to the Capital. Okay. So you get the idea. What do you have in common with Harry Potter, Katniss Everdeen, and Frodo? Well, you're human, just like them!
許多暢銷書和電影都滿忠實地遵循這種古老公式,不過讓我們來看看《飢餓遊戲》有多符合這種英雄之旅的樣板。凱妮絲是什麼時候聽到冒險的召喚,讓故事得以進行下去?當她妹妹的名字被抽中喊出時。那麼支援呢?有人會在她的冒險之旅中協助她嗎?黑密契。啟程呢?她有離開她的普通世界嗎?她搭上一列前往都城的火車。好。所以你懂那概念了。你和哈利波特、凱妮絲還有佛羅多有什麼相同的地方呢?這個嘛,你是人,就和他們一樣!

The hero's journey myth exists in all human cultures and keeps getting updated because we humans reflect on our world through symbolic stories of our own lives. You leave your comfort zone, have an experience that transforms you, and then you recover and do it again. You don't literally slay dragons or fight Voldemort, but you face problems just as scary. Joseph Campbell said, "In the cave you fear to enter lies the treasure you seek." What is the symbolic cave you fear to enter? Auditions for the school play? Baseball tryouts? Love?
英雄之旅的神話存在所有人類文化中,而且一直不斷被更新,因為我們人類會透過描述自身生活的象徵性故事來反思這世界。你離開舒適圈、遭遇一個改變你的經歷,接著你從中恢復然後重新來過。你不會真的去屠龍或對抗佛地魔,不過你面對同樣嚇人的問題。Joseph Campbell 說:「在你懼怕進入的洞穴之中存在你所追尋的寶藏。」什麼是你害怕進入的象徵性洞穴呢?學校戲劇的甄選?棒球選拔賽?愛?

Watch for this formula in books, movies, and TV shows you come across; you will certainly see it again. But also, be sensitive to it in your own life. Listen for your call to adventure, accept the challenge, conquer your fear, and claim the treasure you seek. And then, do it all over again.
在你遇到的書、電影還有電視節目中仔細找這種英雄公式;你絕對會再看到它。還有,在你自己的生活中也要注意。傾聽你的冒險召喚、接受挑戰、戰勝恐懼,得到你尋找的寶藏。然後,從頭再踏上冒險之旅。

  • 「相同、共同」- In Common

    What do Harry Potter, Katniss Everdeen, and Frodo all have in common with the heroes of ancient myths?
    哈利波特、凱妮絲還有佛羅多,他們全都和古代神話中的英雄有什麼共同點呢?

  • 「許多」- Dozens Of

    He studied myths from all over the world and published a book called The Hero with a Thousand Faces, retelling dozens of stories and explaining how each represents the monomyth, or hero's journey.
    他研究世界各地的神話,並出版一本名叫《千面英雄》的書,重述許多故事,並說明每一個故事如何表現出這種單一神話,也就是英雄的旅途。

  • 「通過、穿過」- Pass Through

    The journey begins and ends in the hero's ordinary world, but the quest passes through an unfamiliar, special world.
    這趟旅程的起點和終點都在英雄的一般世界中,不過冒險之旅則會通過一個陌生、奇特的世界。

  • 「因此、結果」- As A Result

    As a result, the hero claims some treasure, special recognition, or power.
    因此,英雄獲得某種寶物、特殊獎賞,或力量。

  • 「理清、解決」- Straighten Out

    All the tangled plot lines get straightened out.
    所有混亂的情節都獲得解答。

  • 「上車」- Get On

    She gets on a train to the Capital.
    她搭上一列前往都城的火車。

  • 「深思、反省」- Reflect On

    ...because we humans reflect on our world through symbolic stories of our own lives.
    ...因為我們人類會透過描述自身生活的象徵性故事來反思這世界。

  • 「碰見、遇到」- Come Across

    Watch for this formula in books, movies, and TV shows you come across; you will certainly see it again.
    在你遇到的書、電影還有電視節目中仔細找這種英雄公式;你絕對會再看到它。

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