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「文法好簡單:倒裝句進階篇」- BBC Masterclass: Inversion 1: After Negative or Limiting Adverbs


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Under no circumstances should you stop watching this video! Only here will you get the full inversion explanation. Are you ready? Let's invert!
你無論如何都不該停止觀看這部影片!只有在這裡你才能看到完整的倒裝句解說。準備好了嗎?我們來倒裝吧!

BBC Masterclass—Inversion I: After Negative or Limiting Adverbs
BBC 高級英文班--倒裝句第一部:否定或限定性副詞後出現

Inversion happens in English for emphasis, dramatic purpose, or formality. In order to invert the normal sentence order of subject, verb, and object, it's changed in some way. Let's find out how. Go!
倒裝用法在英文中出現是為了表示強調、戲劇效果,或正式性。為了要將正常句構的主詞、動詞加上受詞顛倒,句子會被以某種方式改變。來找出是什麼方式吧。出發!

"Never had I met someone so interesting." Now, English has a group of adverbs which limit the meaning of a verb or make it negative. Examples are "never," "hardly," "no," "only," and there are others. In order to change normal sentence order, we move the negative adverbial to the beginning of the sentence and we invert the auxiliary verb and the subject. So, "I had never met someone so interesting" becomes "Never had I met someone so interesting."
Never had I met someone so interesting.(我從未見過這麼有趣的人)。現在,英文中有一群限制動詞意思或使動詞變否定的副詞。那些例子有 never(從未)、hardly(幾乎不)、no(不)、only(僅有),還有其它字。為了要改變正常句構,我們將否定副詞狀語移至句首,接著調換助動詞與主詞的位置。因此,I had never met someone so interesting 就變成 Never had I met someone so interesting.(我從未見過這麼有趣的人)。

In cases where the tense does not use an auxiliary verb in the affirmative, such as the present simple or the past simple, one must be added. So, for example, "I rarely go outside" becomes "Rarely do I go outside." And "She seldom worked very hard" becomes "Seldom did she work very hard."
有些時態中不會在肯定句內使用助動詞的情況,例如現在簡單式或過去簡單式,有一個助動詞一定要被加進去。舉例來說,I rarely go outside 變成 Rarely do I go outside.(我不常出門)。還有 She seldom worked very hard 變成 Seldom did she work very hard.(她很少賣力工作)。

However, there is another level to this. Some negative or limiting adverbials require you to complete a whole clause before the inversion takes place. It's kind of a two-stage process. So, for example, "I didn't know what to do until I saw what had happened" becomes "Not until I saw what had happened did I know what to do."
不過,倒裝句還有另一個層次。有些否定或限制性副詞需要你在倒裝出現前完成整個子句。那有點是個兩階段過程。例如,I didn't know what to do until I saw what had happened(我不知道要做什麼,直到我看到情況)變成 Not until I saw what had happened did I know what to do.(直到我看到情況後我才知道要做什麼)。

In this case, "Not until I saw what had happened" is the adverbial clause; the inversion takes place after this in the main clause. And this is common with adverbs like "not" and "only" in the following combinations.
這個例子中,Not until I saw what had happened 是副詞子句;倒裝在主要子句中要出現在這之後。而這在以下像是 not(不)還有 only(僅有)的組合中很常見。

"Hardly" works like this too, but in the case of "hardly," the inversion happens within the adverbial clause. It's mostly used with the past perfect to signify that one action finished just before another one started. And notice the use of the connecting time words "than" and "when" in the examples. Are you ready? "Hardly had I got home than the dog started barking." "Hardly had he got into the bath when the phone rang." Isn't it typical?
Hardly(幾乎不)也是這樣用,不過在 hardly 的情況中,倒裝會出現在副詞子句裡。這通常會搭配過去完成式使用來表示一個動作在另一個動作開始前剛結束。注意例句中連接時間詞 than(當、就)和 when(當...時)的使用。你準備好了嗎?Hardly had I got home than the dog started barking.(我才到家小狗就開始吠)。Hardly had he got into the bath when the phone rang.(他才剛進去浴缸電話就響了)。是不是很常見的情況啊?

Finally, we can use the expression "little did they know" to mean—wait for it—"they didn't know." It's extremely dramatic, and it's often found within books. It can be quite sinister. For example, "Little did they know that he had stolen all of their money."
最後,我們可以用 little did they know 的說法來表示--等等喔--表示「他們不知道」。這非常戲劇化,而且常在書中出現。這用法可以滿邪惡的。舉例來說,Little did they know that he had stolen all of their money.(他們不知道他把他們所有的錢都偷走了)。

Did you get it? Of course you got it. Now, for more information, please log on to our website at bbclearningenglish.com. I've been Dan; you've been fantastic. And I'll see you next time, okay? Let's invert!
你懂了嗎?你當然都懂囉。現在,想了解更多資訊,請到我們的網站 bbclearningenglish.com。我是 Dan;你們超棒的。我們下次見,好嗎?一起倒裝吧!

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