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「波提切利:〈維納斯的誕生〉」- Botticelli, The Birth of Venus


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We're looking at The Birth of Venus by Botticelli. This is, of course, one of the most iconic images in the history of western art.
我們正在看波提切利的〈維納斯的誕生〉。這是,當然,西洋藝術史中最具標誌性的圖像之一。

Venus is fabulously beautiful. How could it be otherwise?
維納斯是難以至信地美麗。怎麼可能不這樣覺得呢?

So she stands radically naked in a Renaissance painting not in a Christian context here.
所以她完全赤裸地站在這裡一幅不在基督教脈絡中的文藝復興畫作裡。

Until, really, this point in the Renaissance, the only time you would see nude was Eve, but here...
直到,真的,在文藝復興的這時期,你會看到裸體的唯一機會是夏娃,但這裡...

This is not Eve.
這不是夏娃。

No, Botticelli's portrayed the ancient goddess of love, Venus. And he has portrayed her, actually, based her on an ancient Roman sculpture of Venus.
不是,波提切利繪出古代愛神--維納斯。而他描繪她,實際上,以古羅馬維納斯雕像為基礎。

...which was actually a copy of an even earlier ancient Greek sculpture, which was known sometimes as the Modest Venus, and which was actually in the collection of the Medici. We think that this painting might have actually been for one of the Medici court, perhaps even for a cousin of Lorenzo de' Medici.
...這其實是一個甚至更早期古希臘雕像的仿作,這有時以〈含羞維納斯〉為人所知,這其實是在麥地奇家族的收藏中。我們認為這幅畫也許其實是要給麥地奇的其中一座宮殿,也許甚至是要給倫羅佐麥地奇的一位表親。

So Venus stands in the middle. She's born of the sea and seems to be being pushed in by the winds, the Zephyrs that are personified on the left. She stands on a seashell, or almost stands on a seashell. There's so much impossibility in this painting. And when she gets to the shore, she'll be received by an attendant that's ready to wrap her nude body.
所以維納斯站在中間。她從海洋誕生,看似被風推動,也就是在左側擬人化的風神。她站在貝殼上,或幾乎站在貝殼上。在這幅畫裡有太多的不可能性。然後當她走到岸邊,她將會由一名準備好裹覆她赤裸身軀的侍女接待。

But we're, I think, delighted that she hasn't gotten there yet because the body is just so beautiful. It's so sensuous, and it's an impossible kind of pose. It's not really contrapposto. You know, there's this extraordinary curve to the body that I think...I suggest that she's got a very flexible kind of skeletal structure.
但我們是,我認為,很開心她還沒走到那兒,因為那身軀就是如此美麗。那是如此充滿美感,而且那是個不大可能做到的姿勢。那是非常人體比例不協調的。你知道,有這個身體異常的弧線,我覺得...我認為她有種非常靈活的骨骼構造。

And even the Zephyrs who are those winds that blow her to shore are intertwined in impossible ways. And every figure here floats.
甚至風神,就是那些吹動她到岸邊的風,也以不可能的方式交纏。且這裡每個角色都是飄在空中的。

When we look at Renaissance paintings, we generally expect to see real naturalism. We expect to see figures that have weight, with bodies that make sense, existing in a realistic space. That's what we think of when we think about the Renaissance, but that's not what Botticelli gives us.
當我們欣賞文藝復興的畫作時,我們通常期待看到真正的自然主義。我們期待看到有重量的人物、有合理的身軀、存在於現實的空間裡。那是當我們想到文藝復興時會想到的東西,但那不是波提切利帶給我們的。

Well, some art historians suggested that Botticelli is looking back to ancient Greek painting. And the only painting, really, that Botticelli would have available to him from the classical Greek tradition would have been vase painting, where figures are often isolated against the ground.
嗯,有些美術史學家認為波提切利正在回顧古希臘的畫作。而真的,波提切利唯一能從古典希臘傳統找到的畫作會是瓶畫,其中人物通常都與地面分離。

This is really a freeze. All the figures, and this is very much a Botticelli characteristic, are pushed forward, and...
這真的是個定格動作。所有人物都被往前推向前景,這是非常波提切利的特性,而且...

Kind of occupying a single plane.
有點像佔住了一個單平面。

That's right! And they are sort of isolated, these three groupings. And you can always imagine them as line painting on a vase. In fact, this painting is really linear. And because of the patterning, because of the quality of the linear, it sort of defies space.
沒錯!且他們有點孤立,這三組人物。而且你總是可以把它們想像成花瓶上的線圖。事實上,這幅畫是非常依賴線條的。而因為那結構、因為那線條的特形,它有點違反空間。

I mean, yes, we can look into the deep space, but this is not a Masaccio. The attempt here is to really de-emphasize deep space and to, instead, create a sense of pattern, create a sense of beauty. This is a painting, presumably, and we're just guessing. We don't know.
我是說,是的,我們可以望進那深度空間,但這不是馬薩喬(義大利畫家)。這裡的嘗試是要確實降低深度空間的重要性,轉而創造出格局感,創造出美感。理論上來說,這是一幅畫,而我們只是在猜測。我們不知道。

It is really about beauty. Perhaps in the neo-Platonic sense, both beauty is physical and sensual as erotic, but that leads one to his notion of divine beauty.
這確實有關美感。也許是新柏拉圖派的概念,美感,正如情慾般既是形體上又刺激感官的,但那將一個人引導至他對神聖美感的概念。

Right, there are two kinds of beauty, and that through a contemplation of physical beauty we can arrive at divine beauty.
沒錯,有兩種美感,而透過形體美感的沉思,我們可以到達神聖的美感。

Botticelli is creating a kind of beauty that is a result of, of course, the narrative; it's a result of the elegance of the figure herself, but also through the use of pattern, through a kind of purely decorative quality. We can see that especially in the traces of gold that he's placed in her hair, in the trees to the right.
波提切利正在創造出一種美感,當然,那是敘事的結果;那也是人物她本身優雅的結果,但同樣是透過構圖的使用、透過一種純粹裝飾的特性。我們可以看到那點特別是他放在她髮絲中、放在右側樹中的金色輪廓。

There's a kind of sensuality here that's irresistible, right? The pink flowers, fluttering between Venus and the Zephyr; the beautiful lines that create the waves; the lines from her hair; that fluttering drapery. It's a beautiful world that we want to enter.
這裡有一種無法抗拒的感官享受,對吧?那粉紅色的花朵,在維納斯及風神之間飄動;那創造出海浪的美麗線條;她髮絲中的線條;那搖盪的布料。那是個我們想要進入的美麗世界。

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