So the next set of words, they're not verbs, they're pronouns: "who" vs. "whom," but they still have that subject-object thing going on. So "who," you use "who" when you're referring to the subject. And you use "whom" when you're referring to the object. So, if you're asking, "Who chewed the ball," the "who" is the subject. "Who" is the person taking action—or the dog taking action—chewing the ball. But if you have "The dog chewed whom?" "whom" is the target of the chewing. So "whom" is in the object position, and so is the object pronoun. When you're talking about the target of an action, you use "whom."
下一組字，它們不是動詞，它們是代名詞：who 與 whom，但它們還是有那種主詞和受詞的概念。那麼 who，當你指的是主詞時，你用 who。當你指的是受詞時，就用 whom。所以，如果你在問 Who chewed the ball.(誰咬了球)，這的 who 是主詞。Who 是那個做動作的人－－或是狗做那動作－－咬球。不過如果你的句子是 The dog chewed whom?(狗咬了誰？) ，whom 是咬那動作的目標。所以 whom 是在受詞的位置，因此是受詞代名詞。當你在說一個動作的目標時，你使用 whom。
Now, an easier way to remember this is something I jokingly call the "Himlich Maneuver." So, the way you test the sentence is ask, Can you answer, hypothetically, with the word "him"? And if you can, then you use "whom." And it's easy to remember because "him" and "whom" both end with the letter "m."
現在，一個更簡單的記憶方法是我開玩笑地叫「Him 策略」的東西。那麼，你測試一個句子的方法是問問，你能否假設地用 him 這個字來回答？如果能的話，那你就用 whom。這很容易記起來，因為 him 和 whom 都是以字母 m 結尾。
So, if you're trying to figure out whether you should write "Who/Whom should we invite to speak?" think about whether you can hypothetically answer with a sentence that uses "him." You're restating it: "We should invite 'him' to speak." So because your answer, when you restate the question, has "him" in it, then you know the correct choice is "whom." "'Whom' should we invite to speak?" "Him" equals "whom."
所以，如果你在試著想出你應該寫 Who 還是 Whom should we invite to speak?(我們應該邀誰來演講？)，假想你能不能以一個用 him 的句子來回答。你重述那句子：We should invite "him" to speak.(我們應該邀請他來演講)。因為你重述問題時的答案有 him，你就知道正確的選擇是用 whom。"Whom" should we invite to speak?(我們應該邀誰來演講？) 有 Him 等於要用 whom。
Here's another one: "Who/Whom did you call yesterday?" Well, the answer would be "I called 'him' yesterday." So again, you have a "him," so you know to use "whom." "'Whom' did you call yesterday?"
這有另一個例子：Who/Whom did you call yesterday?(你昨天打給誰？) 這個嘛，答案會是 I called "him" yesterday.(我昨天打給他)。又一次，你有個 him，所以你知道要用 whom。"Whom" did you call yesterday?(你昨天打給誰？)
Here's another one: "Who/Whom spoke at the dinner?" Well, this one's different; you can't answer with "him." The answer is "'He' spoke at dinner." So you don't have a "him," so you don't use "whom," so you use the other one—it's "who." "'Who' spoke at dinner?"
這裡是另一個例子：Who/Whom spoke at the dinner?(誰在晚宴發言？) 嗯，這一句就不一樣了；你不能用 him 回答。答案是 "He" spoke at the dinner.(他在晚宴發言)。你沒有 him，所以你不用 whom，你用另一個字－－就是 who。"Who" spoke at dinner?(誰在晚宴發言？)
Hi, I'm Mignon Fogarty, better known as Grammar Girl. Please join me for my first Ragan webcast, Beyond Peeves: How to Avoid the Most Common Writing Errors. We'll talk about misused words, grammar and writing errors, and punctuation problems. And by the end, you'll be a better writer.
嗨，我是 Mignon Fogarty，比較常被稱作「文法女孩」。請加入我首次 Ragan 頻道的直播，超越困難事：如何避免常見寫作錯誤。我們會討論誤用字、文法和寫作錯誤，以及標點問題。到結束時，你會成為一個寫作更出色的人。
- 「提到、意指」- Refer To
So "who," you use "who" when you're referring to the subject.
那麼 who，當你指的是主詞時，你用 who。
- 「想出、理解」- Figure Out
So, if you're trying to figure out whether you should write "Who/Whom should we invite to speak?" think about whether you can hypothetically answer with a sentence that uses "him."
所以，如果你在試著想出你應該寫 Who 還是 Whom should we invite to speak?(我們應該邀誰來演講？)，假想你能不能以一個用 him 的句子來回答。