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「為什麼有左駕、右駕之分呢?讓歷史說給你聽!」- Left vs. Right


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In 2009, the country of Samoa prohibited the sale of alcohol for three days to keep people safe while the island nation switched from driving on the right side of the road to driving on the left. The switch was so Samoans could get cheap, hand-me-down cars from nearby left-side driving New Zealand and Australia. But Samoans weren't too pleased since most of the cars they owned were designed to drive on the right. In fact, two out of three earthlings drive on the right. But why?
2009 年,薩摩亞禁止販售酒類三天,來讓人民得以維持安全,在這島國從右駕轉到左駕的時候。這轉變讓薩摩亞人能夠取得便宜的二手車,從左駕的鄰國紐西蘭與澳洲取得。但是薩摩亞人不是非常高興,因為他們所擁有的大部分車子都被設計成靠右駕駛。事實上,三分之二的人是右駕。但是,為什麼呢?

There aren't clear and obvious reasons to choose one side over the other, so the origin of driving conventions is a perfect opportunity for the mathematics of game theory and symmetry breaking. Or we can just look at historical evidence.
選擇靠其中一側而非另一側駕駛並沒有清楚且顯然的原因,所以駕駛慣例的起源是個絕佳機會,來做為數學賽局理論與對稱性破缺的例證。或是,我們可以就看一下歷史證據。

Today's rules evolved from "driving" livestock and carts on the earliest roads. Archaeologists view deeper grooves on the left lane leaving an ancient Roman quarry in England as evidence for left-side traffic since departing wagons would've had heavier loads. And it's possible that this left-side convention was in place so right-handed soldiers and knights could draw their weapons more quickly against passing enemies. Whatever the reason, keeping to the left was eventually made into law in England in 1835. And today, most people who drive on the left side live in countries like India, South Africa, and Australia, which were once British colonies. But that doesn't explain why the rest of the world drives on the right.
今日的規則源自於在最早期的路上「駕駛」牲畜與二輪車。考古學家認為從英國古老羅馬採石場離開的左邊道路比較深的車轍,是左側交通的證據,因為離開採石場的馬車會載有更重的石材。而且也有可能這左駕慣例的建立,是為了讓右撇子軍人與騎士比迎面而來的敵人更快地拔出武器。不論原因是什麼,以左為尊在英國最終在 1835 年制定成法律。而如今,大多數左駕的人都住在一些像是印度、南非,以及澳洲的國家,也就是那些曾經是英國殖民地的國家。但那並沒有解釋到為什麼世界上其他地方靠右駕駛。

Some claim that following the French Revolution, drivers there switched to the right to reject the practices of their overthrown aristocracy, while others suggest the French drove on the right all along. Regardless, driving on the right side of the road did spread across much of Europe when Napoleon (and later Hitler) imposed their national driving rules on conquered territory. Other countries voluntarily switched to the right to align with their neighbors, like Sweden in 1967, or to veer away from their colonial pasts, like Nigeria and Ghana in the 1970s.
有些人主張在法國大革命之後,那裡的駕駛人改靠右駕駛來抵制他們推翻的貴族的習慣,而其他人則認為法國人一直以來都右駕。無論如何,靠右駕駛的確傳播到歐洲許多地方,當拿破崙(以及後來的希特勒)將他們國家的駕駛規則強加於被征服的領土時。其他國家則自願改成右駕來與他們的鄰國一致,像是 1967 年的瑞典,或是來扭轉他們的殖民歷史,像是 1970 年代的奈及利亞與迦納。

And in the U.S.? Well, America owes its right-sided habit, in part, to the carts and postilion wagons of its early days. Driving either from the ground or from horseback, right-handed men preferred to walk or ride on the left side of the horses so they could control the animals with their right hand. As a result, they drove their wagons to the right so they could be closer to the center of the road to see and steer clear of oncoming traffic. And that's ultimately the point of driving laws: to keep us safe from the high-speed, two-ton metal projectiles we call cars.
而美國呢?嗯,美國的右駕慣例,有一部分源於它早期的運貨車與左馭馬車。不論是在地上或是馬背上駕駛,右撇子的人都偏好走或是騎在馬的左邊,這樣他們才能用右手控制動物。因此他們將馬車駕駛到路的右邊,這樣他們才能更靠近路中間來看路並避開來車。而那是交通規則的最終重點:讓我們在這個我們稱之為車子的高速、兩噸重金屬自動推進器當中,能保持安全。

  • 「事實上」- In Fact

    In fact, two out of three earthlings drive on the right. But why?
    事實上,三分之二的人是右駕。但是,為什麼呢?

  • 「始終、一直」- All Along

    Some claim that following the French Revolution, drivers there switched to the right to reject the practices of their overthrown aristocracy, while others suggest the French drove on the right all along.
    有些人主張在法國大革命之後,那裡的駕駛人改靠右駕駛來抵制他們推翻的貴族的習慣,而其他人則認為法國人一直以來都右駕。

  • 「一部分、某種程度上」- In Part

    Well, America owes its right-sided habit, in part, to the carts and postilion wagons of its early days.
    嗯,美國的右駕慣例,有一部分源於它早期的運貨車與左馭馬車。

  • 「因此」- As A Result

    As a result, they drove their wagons to the right so they could be closer to the center of the road to see and steer clear of oncoming traffic.
    因此他們將馬車駕駛到路的右邊,這樣他們才能更靠近路中間來看路並避開來車。

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