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「科學證實,一週絕對不能工作超過 40 小時!」- Science Finally Says We Should Never Work 40 Hours a Week


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Reason number 1,215 for why science rules: It turns out we're all putting in way too much time at our jobs! Science says, "Work less!"
科學為什麼最棒的第 1,215 條原因:原來我們都花太多時間在工作上了!科學表示:「少工作一點!」

Hey there, working stiffs. Trace here for DNews. Like many of you out there, I have a full-time job. This. And generally, I put in 40 hours a week, or a lot more. But new research out of Australia suggests that I may be putting my health at risk! The study published in the journal Social Science & Medicine sampled roughly 3,800 men and 4,000 women to get an idea of how working for a long time would affect their health. They found, on average, working more than 39 hours per week led to a decline in mental health. Researchers think this is because it gives you less time to eat healthy meals and to take care of yourself.
哈囉,勞工們。我是 DNews 頻道的 Trace。和你們很多人一樣,我有一份全職工作。就是這份。一般來說,我一週工作四十小時,或比那多很多。不過澳洲一份新研究指出,我可能在危害自己的健康!這篇發表在《社會科學與醫學》期刊中的研究,抽樣約 3,800 名男性及 4,000 名女性,以了解長時間工作會如何影響他們的健康。他們發現,每週平均工作超過 39 個小時會導致心理健康惡化。研究人員認為,這是因為長時間工作讓你比較沒時間吃健康的三餐和照顧自己。

And there are actually pretty huge differences in how women and men were affected by their work. For men, the upper healthy limit was pegged around 43.5 hours, whereas for women, it was closer to 38. That difference was made even more dramatic when considering that women are often expected to take care of the household outside of work, which is unpaid, in addition to their hourly workload.
而女性和男性如何被工作影響其實有著滿大的差異。對男性來說,健康的工時上限約限定在 43.5 小時左右,但女性的話,則比較接近 38 小時。那差異甚至會更為加劇,當考慮到女性常被期望在工作外還要照顧家庭,除了鐘點計算的工作量外,還要做沒薪水的家務。

Nonetheless, many countries, including the entire European Union, have implemented a maximum 48-hour work week. The International Labour Office has released reports
detailing how working more than 48 hours can significantly increase the risk of mental health problems, and working more than 60 hours regularly can even lead to physical problems, especially cardiovascular disease.
不過,許多國家,包含整個歐盟在內,都施行每週工時最多 48 小時。國際勞工局公佈一些報告,詳述工作超過 48 小時可能會怎樣大幅增加心理健康問題的風險,以及經常工作超過 60 小時甚至可能導致生理問題,尤其是心血管疾病。

Another recent study in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine looked at people who'd been working for at least 10 years and found the risk of cardiovascular disease increases as the number of hours worked per week increases as well, with the health risk being lowest between 40 and 45 hours per week.
另一項最近在《職業及環境醫學期刊》中的研究,觀察工作至少十年的民眾,發現得到心血管疾病的風險增加,當每週工時同樣增加的時候,而每週工作 40 至 45 小時之間的健康風險則是最低的。

For workers who sit all day in an office, the effects can be even worse. A 2014 study of 4,000 civil servants in the UK found that those who sat more than 25 hours per week tended to increase their chances of insulin resistance and had higher rates of bad cholesterol. Both of these are risk factors for diabetes. And the same study found that those who sat fewer than 12 hours per day actually lowered their risk of diabetes by up to 75 percent.
對整天坐在辦公室的勞工來說,那些影響可能更加嚴重。2014 年一項研究觀察英國 4,000 名公務員,發現那些每週坐超過 25 個小時的人容易增加胰島素抵抗的可能性,而且體內壞膽固醇的比率也比較高。這兩者都是糖尿病的風險因素。而同一項研究發現每天坐著的時間少於 12 小時的人,竟然降低將近百分之七十五的糖尿病風險。

A poll of nearly 240,000 U.S. workers found that among those working full time, more than one in 10 had been diagnosed with depression. Of course, this only shows that people who work full time might also be depressed, not that working necessarily causes depression. Nonetheless, the correlation is worth noting.
一個對近 24 萬名美國勞工所作的民調發現,那些有全職工作的人之中,每十人有超過一人曾被診斷出憂鬱症。當然,這只表示有全職工作的人可能同時會憂鬱,而不是工作就一定會導致憂鬱症。不過,其中的相關性仍值得注意。

Although the original study we looked at recommends an average of 39 hours a week, that may not be the whole story when it comes to how working affects your health. It also matters whether or not you take breaks during the day. Although many countries do have laws guaranteeing employees regular breaks, those breaks may not be frequent enough for maximum productivity, because the brain can get tired when repeatedly stressed.
雖然我們本來看的研究建議一週平均工作 39 小時,但在講到工作如何影響健康時,那或許不能說明一切。你一天當中有沒有休息也有關係。雖然許多國家確實有法律保障員工有固定的休息時間,但那些休息時間也許不夠頻繁到讓人有最大的生產力,因為反覆感到壓力時,大腦可能會疲憊。

And in fact, it's possible that the best way to boost your health and productivity is not to come to work at all. No, seriously, working from home is getting more and more popular thanks to the Internet and telecommuting, though it is still not the norm.
事實上,提高健康和生產力的最佳辦法,很可能是完全不要去工作。不,講真的,拜網路及遠端辦公所賜,在家工作變得越來越普及,雖然這種模式仍不是常態。

A study by the National Bureau of Economic Research looked at call center employees in China and their performance when working from home. They found that on average, the employees working from home worked more minutes per shift and took more calls per minute, bumping their productivity by about 13 percent. The workers also reported higher levels of work satisfaction—not a surprise.
美國全國經濟研究所的一項研究觀察中國客服中心的員工,以及他們在家工作時的表現。他們發現,平均來看,在家工作的員工每班會多工作幾分鐘,而且每分鐘會接更多通電話,他們的生產力提升大約百分之十三。勞工們還回報工作更有成就感--不意外。

So in the end, the healthiest and most productive solution does seem to be working fewer hours, some from home, with plenty of breaks. So, you know, catch me next time on DNews, where I'm gonna be reporting from my house. Stay tuned.
因此到最後,最健康且有成效的辦法看來確實是工時少一點,有些工作在家做,還有充足的休息時間。那麼,下次看到我在 DNews 頻道,我會從我家報導。別轉台。

If you're stuck working long hours, would it help to listen to music? Do you think that would boost your productivity? Find out in this video here. What about you? Do you feel like you work too much? Do you listen to music while you work? Let us know down in the comments, make sure you subscribe for more DNews, and thanks for watching.
如果你困在長時間的工作中,聽音樂會有幫助嗎?你覺得那會促進你的生產力嗎?到這邊這部影片中一探究竟。那你呢?你覺得你工作太多了嗎?你工作時會聽音樂嗎?在留言區讓我們知道,一定要訂閱以收看更多 DNews 影片,然後謝謝收看。

  • 「結果成為、最終發現」- Turn Out

    It turns out we're all putting in way too much time at our jobs!
    原來我們都花太多時間在工作上了!

  • 「花費(大量時間或精力)」- Put In

    And generally, I put in 40 hours a week, or a lot more.
    一般來說,我一週工作四十小時,或比那多很多。

  • 「有危險、冒風險」- At Risk

    But new research out of Australia suggests that I may be putting my health at risk!
    不過澳洲一份新研究指出,我可能在危害自己的健康!

  • 「照顧、照料」- Take Care Of

    Researchers think this is because it gives you less time to eat healthy meals and to take care of yourself.
    研究人員認為,這是因為長時間工作讓你比較沒時間吃健康的三餐和照顧自己。

  • 「導致、引起」- Lead To

    ...and working more than 60 hours regularly can even lead to physical problems, especially cardiovascular disease.
    ...經常工作超過 60 小時甚至可能導致生理問題,尤其是心血管疾病。

  • 「當談到...時」- When It Comes To

    Although the original study we looked at recommends an average of 39 hours a week, that may not be the whole story when it comes to how working affects your health.
    雖然我們本來看的研究建議一週平均工作 39 小時,但在講到工作如何影響健康時,那或許不能說明一切。

  • 「事實上、實際上」- In Fact

    And in fact, it's possible that the best way to boost your health and productivity is not to come to work at all.
    事實上,提高健康和生產力的最佳辦法,很可能是完全不要去工作。

  • 「根本、完全」- At All

    And in fact, it's possible that the best way to boost your health and productivity is not to come to work at all.
    事實上,提高健康和生產力的最佳辦法,很可能是完全不要去工作。

  • 「由於、幸虧」- Thanks To

    No, seriously, working from home is getting more and more popular thanks to the Internet and telecommuting, though it is still not the norm.
    不,講真的,拜網路及遠端辦公所賜,在家工作變得越來越普及,雖然這種模式仍不是常態。

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