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「別再偷走夢想:賽斯‧高汀」- STOP STEALING DREAMS: Seth Godin


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Good morning, boys and girls. That was terrible. You've learned how to do that from a young age. You're supposed to say, "Good morning, Mr. Godin." So let's try again. Good morning, boys and girls. Good morning, Mr. Godin.
早安,男孩女孩們。那太糟了。你們從很小的時候就學過要怎麼做了。你們應該要說:「早安,Godin先生。」所以我們再試一次。早安,男孩女孩們。早安,Godin先生。

Have you thought about what that's for? Have you thought about how, for a hundred or hundred and fifty years, that was ingrained into the process of public education? Have you thought at all, as people on the cutting edge, as people who are interested in making school work again, about a very simple question: What is school for?
你們有沒有想過這是為了什麼?你們有沒有想過,過去一百或是一百五十年來,這是如何深植到公共教育的過程中的?身為走在尖端的人、有志要讓學校再次運作的人,你們究竟可曾想過一個非常簡單的問題:學校是做什麼用的?

I don't think we're answering that question. I don't even think we're asking that question. Everyone seems to think they know what school is for. But we're not gonna make anything happen until we can all agree about how we got here and where we're going.
我不認為我們在回答這問題。我甚至不認為我們在問這問題。每個人似乎都認為他們知道學校是做什麼用的,但直到我們能夠全都一致同意我們如何走到現在、以及再來要往哪走之前,我們不會讓任何事發生。

My goal today is to put that question into your head and help you think about it. First, we have to understand what school used to be for. There's a woman named Mary Everest Boole, and she came up with this notion (she was a mathematician in the late 1800s) that you could use string and nails and wood and make decorations (those things with the string goes back and forth) and there's math built into that, and that a teacher on the cutting edge, of fifth graders, might decide to use that idea of modulo nine and remainders and string going back and forth to teach an important lesson about math. So the memo went home to all the parents at my kid's public school and said, "We need help with this. We need hammers." So I'm sort of unemployed. I showed up at school that day with a bag of hammers, a big bag of eighteen hammers. Now, I don't know if you've ever heard eighteen kids hitting nails with eighteen hammers in a little room for twenty minutes, but I have. And I'm not gonna do it for you because it's really hard to listen to.
我今天的目標是要將這問題裝進你們的腦袋,並幫助你們思考這問題。首先我們必須了解學校在過去是做什麼用的。有名叫做Mary Everest Boole的女人,她提出這樣的概念(她是十九世紀晚期的一名數學家)這個概念是,你可以用細繩、釘子和木頭做出裝飾品(那些有細繩來回穿梭的東西)而且有數學概念植入其中,還有一位走在尖端的老師,教五年級的,也許決定要使用除九法、餘數以及來回穿梭的細繩來教導有關數學很重要的一門課。因此有份通知單被帶回家裡,給我的小孩就讀的公立學校中每位家長,上面寫著:「我們需要幫忙。我們需要鎚子。」我算是無業人士。我在那天帶了一袋鎚子出現在學校,一大袋、有十八支鎚子。現在,我不知道你們有沒有聽過十八個小孩用十八支鎚子在一間小房間裡釘了二十分鐘的釘子,反正我是聽過了。我沒有要做給你們看,因為那真的很難聽。

And what the teacher explained to the kids is they must arrange the brads in this certain pattern, hammering, hammering, hammering and make sure they're in there nice and firm. And so these kids are hammering, hammering, hammering, twenty minutes of zero education. Just twenty minutes of hammering. And then the teacher walks over and she says to a boy, "I told you to make sure the brads were all the way in." And one by one she pulled them out and threw them on the floor, every single one, and put the board down, and that is what she believed school was for. School was about teaching obedience. "Good morning boys and girls!" starts the day with respect and obedience.
而那老師向孩子解釋的是,他們必須用這種特定的模式來排列圓頭釘,釘、釘、釘,並確保它們在那釘牢。所以那些孩子們就釘、釘、釘,二十分鐘內完全沒有任何教學。只是二十分鐘的釘釘咚咚。然後老師走了過來,她對一個男孩說:「我告訴你務必要讓那些圓頭釘全部都釘進去。」然後她一個個把釘子拔出來並丟到地上,每一個。然後把板子放下,這就是她認為學校是做什麼用的。學校是要教導服從。「早安,男孩女孩們!」以尊重及服從開啟了一天。

Now I have to move on to Frederick J. Kelly. Some of you have brought your own number two pencil for the quiz that is gonna be part of today. The number two pencil is famous because Frederick J. Kelly made it famous. Back around World War I, we had a problem, which was this huge influx of students because we'd expanded the school date to include high school and there was this huge need to sort them all out. So he invented the standardized test, an abomination. And he gave it up ten years later when the emergency was over, but because he gave it up, because he called it out, because he said the standardized test is too crude to be used, he was ostracized and lost his job as the president of a university, because he dared to speak up against a system that was working.
現在我需要把話題轉到Frederick J. Kelly上。你們有些人為了會是今天一部分的隨堂測驗帶了你們自己的HB鉛筆。HB鉛筆很有名是因為Frederick J. Kelly讓它出名的。回到大約第一次世界大戰時,我們有個問題,那就是因為我們已擴展了學校教育階段去將高中列入其中,大量學生的湧入,而也有要替他們全部分級的極大需求。所以他發明了標準化測驗,一個討厭的東西。他在十年之後緊急情況結束時放棄了這項測驗,但因為他放棄了它,因為他挑戰了它,因為他說標準化測驗太過粗陋不該拿來用,所以他被趕出去,且丟了大學校長的工作,因為他竟敢大聲對抗一個運行中的體制。

So let's try a little experiment here. I'd like everyone to go ahead and raise your right hand just as high as you possibly can. Now please raise a little higher. Hmm. What's that about? My instructions were pretty clear and yet you all held back. How come? You held back because you've been taught since you were three years old to hold a little bit back, because if you do everything, if you put all out, then your parent or your teacher or your coach or your boss is gonna ask for a little bit more, aren't they? And the reason they will is because we are products of the Industrial Age.
在這裡來做個小實驗。我要各位來舉起你們的右手,能舉多高就多高。現在請再舉高一點點。嗯。那是怎麼搞的?我的指示非常清楚,然而你們都有所保留。怎麼會這樣?你們有所保留是因為你們自從三歲開始都被教導要保留一點點,因為如果你做了每件事,如果你全力以赴,那麼你的父母、你的老師、你的教練或你的老闆會再多要求一點點,對吧?他們會這樣做的理由是因為我們是工業時代的產物。

The industrial age made us all rich. The industrial age brought productivity to the table. Productivity allows human beings working together with a boss and a manager to make more than they could ever make alone. Productivity makes us a car for seven hundred dollars instead of seven hundred thousand dollars in 1920. But the thing about productivity and industrialism is this: the people who ran factories had two huge problems. Problem number one: they looked around and they said, "We don't have enough workers. We don't have enough people who are willing to move off the farm and come to this dark building for twelve hours a day, six days a week and do what they are told. If we could get more workers, we could pay them less. And if we could pay them less, we'd make more money. We need more workers." And so, the KKK went to industrialists and said, "You need to get those kids out of the factories, those people you're paying three dollars a day, because they're taking our jobs." And so a deal was made. And the deal was universal public education whose sole intent was not to train the scholars of tomorrow. We have plenty of scholars. It was to train people to be willing to work in the factory. It was to train people to behave, to comply, to fit in. We process you for a whole year. If you are defective, we hold you back and process you again. We sit you in straight rows just like they organize things in the factory. We build a system, all about interchangeable people, because factories are based on interchangeable parts. If this piece is no good, put another piece in there. And org charts, those little boxes are all designed to say, "Oh, we can fit Bob in there because Rachel didn't show up to work today." And so we built school. That's what school was for.
工業時代讓我們都變得富有。工業時代將生產力搬上檯面。生產力讓人類能和老闆及經理一起工作,好能夠比他們單獨工作時做得更多。生產力讓我們在1920年能用七百美金而不是七十萬美金做出一輛車。但有關生產力和工業主義的事實是:經營工廠的人有兩個很大的問題。第一個問題:他們環顧四周並說:「我們沒有足夠的工人。我們沒有足夠的人願意離開農場並來這棟陰暗的建築,一週六天、每天二十小時,做我們所吩咐的事情。如果我們可以得到更多工人,我們就可以付他們少一點錢。如果我們可以付他們少一點錢,我們就可以賺更多錢。我們需要更多工人。」所以,三K黨(美國恐怖組織)去找企業家們並說:「你們需要把那些孩子、那些你們每天支付三塊錢的人趕出工廠,因為他們正佔走我們的工作。」所以做了一個交易。而這交易是,全民公共教育的唯一目的不是要去訓練未來的學者。我們有很多學者了。目的是要訓練人們願意到工廠工作。它是要訓練人們守規矩、順從、融入。我們加工你一整年。如果你有缺陷,我們就把你拉回來,再加工你一次。我們讓你們坐成直排,就像他們在工廠裡組織東西一樣。我們建立一個系統,全都為了可以輪替的人們,因為工廠是立基於可以替換的零件上的。如果這塊不好,就把另一塊放這。還有組織架構圖,那些小格子都是用來說:「喔,我們可以把Bob放這裡,因為Rachel今天沒有來工作。」所以我們建立學校。那就是學校的作用。

And the second thing industrialists were really worried about was that we weren't gonna buy all the stuff they could make, that in 1880, 1890, people owned two pairs of shoes, one pair of jeans. That was it. Like you don't know anyone who owns one pair of jeans anymore, ever. What they needed to train us to do was buy stuff. They needed to train us to fit in. They needed to train us to become consumers. And so, Horace Mann, who meant well, built the public school as we know it. And then, he needed more teachers, right? Because you have more schools so he built a school for teachers. Do you know what it's called? The normal school. He called it the normal school where they train people to teach in the common school, because he wanted you to be normal, and he wanted the class to be normal, and he wanted people to fit in.
第二件企業家都非常擔心的事是,我們不會買所有他們能夠製造的東西,在1880、1890年時,人們擁有兩雙鞋、一條牛仔褲。就這樣。好像你再也不會認識任何擁有一條牛仔褲的人一樣,再也不會。他們所需要訓練我們去做的是買東西。他們需要訓練我們去融入。他們需要訓練我們成為消費者。所以,Horace Mann,他立意甚好,建立了如我們所知的公立學校。接著,他需要更多的老師,對吧?因為你有了更多的學校,所以他為老師們建立了學校。你知道它叫什麼嗎?師範學校(註一)。他稱之為師範學校,在那裡他們訓練人們在普通的學校教書,因為他想要你是正常的,他想要整個班級都是正常的,而且他想要人們融入。

And then we came up with this: the textbook. Now if you wanna teach somebody how to become passionate about, I don't know, American history, why would you give them this? Do people walk into Barnes & Noble and say, "I'm really interested in that latest gripping thing that's gonna get me all engaged about the Civil War. Do you have one of those textbooks in stock?" If you wanted to teach someone how to be a baseball fan, would you start by having them understand the history of baseball: who Abner Doubleday was, and what barnstorming was, and the influences of cricket and capitalism and the Negro leagues? Would you do that? Would you say, "Ok, there's a test tomorrow. I want you to memorize the top fifty batters in order by batting average," and then rank the people based on how they do on the test so the ones who do well get to memorize more baseball players? Is that how we would create baseball fans?
然後我們有了這玩意:教科書。如果你想要教某個人要如何,我不知道,變得對於美國歷史非常熱衷,你為什麼要給他們這玩意?人們會走進Barnes & Noble(美國連鎖書店)然後問:「我對那個讓我能完全投入於南北戰爭的最新、最吸引人的東西感到非常有興趣。你們庫存有本那種教科書嗎?」如果你想要教某人如何成為棒球迷,你一開始會要他們了解棒球史:誰是Abner Doubleday (據說為棒球發明者)、巡迴賽是什麼,以及板球、資本主義和黑人聯盟的影響嗎?你會這樣做嗎?你會說:「Ok, 明天有個考試。我要你們以打擊率順序記下前五十名最頂尖的打者。」然後以他們考試的表現為基準來替人們排名,所以那些表現好的就會記下更多棒球員嗎?這是我們如何培養棒球迷的方法嗎?

Here's the key distinction. What people do quite naturally is, if it's work, they try to figure out how to do less. If it's art, we try to figure out how to do more. And when we put kids in the factory we call school, the thing we built to indoctrinate them into compliance, why are we surprised that the question is "Will this be on the test?" Right? Someone is making art doesn't say, "Can I do one less canvas this month?" They don't say, "Can I write one less song this month?" They don't say, "Can I touch one less...one fewer person this month?" It's art. They want to do more of it. But when it's work, when it's your job, when you're seven, of course you want to do less of it.
這是主要的差異。人們非常自然而然會做的是,如果是份工作,他們試著想出怎麼做更少。如果是門藝術,我們試著想出怎麼做更多。當我們將小孩送進我們稱為學校的工廠,那個我們建立來教導他們順從的東西時,為什麼我們要訝異於他們的問題是:「這考試會考嗎?」對吧?某個搞藝術的人不會說:「我這個月可以少畫一幅油畫嗎?」他們不會說:「我這個月可以少寫一首歌嗎?」他們不會說:「我這個月可以少...少接觸一些人嗎?」這是藝術。他們想要做更多。但當它是份工作時、當它是你的工作時、當你七歲的時候,當然你想要做少一點。

So one of the things that I have done as a...an application is that when I meet people, I take this out. There's a great bargain online. And it's filled with these blocks, right? You've probably seen blocks before. I'm gonna dump them out of it. And I say, "Take four blocks and make them into something interesting." Now it's an interesting question, because you can use the letters; you can use the shapes; you can spell the word; you can put a profanity there; you can spell a word that means nothing; you can make the shape into a bridge. And people hate this, because there's no right answer and there's a million wrong answers. They hate this because there's no Dummies Guide to How To Make Something Interesting Out Of Blocks when you're thirty years old. And now, we're at a crossroads. We're at a crossroads because as a culture we say the only thing we care about, the only place we're willing to cross the street to go, the only thing we're willing to buy, the only person we're willing to vote for, the only stuff we're willing to talk about is interesting, is art, is new, will touch us and is valuable. And then we spend all of our money and all of our time teaching people not to do that. And so we're now at this crossroads because technology is here, too. And the technology says, you know what, for the first time in history, we do not need a human being to stand next to us to teach us to do square roots. For the first time in history, we do not need a human being to teach us how to sharpen an ax, because the Internet connects us all.
所以我用來作為運用的東西之一是,當我見到人們,我拿出這個。網路上有很好的價錢。裡面塞滿這些積木,對吧?你以前可能看過積木。我要把它們倒出來。然後我說:「拿四塊積木,然後把它們拼成一些有趣的東西。」現在這是個很有趣的問題,因為你可以使用那些字母;你可以用那些模型;你可以拼出字;你可以在那拼出個髒話;你可以拼出毫無意義的字;你可以把各式積木變成橋樑。而人們討厭這樣,因為沒有正確的答案,且還有一百萬個錯誤的答案。他們討厭這樣,因為在你三十歲時沒有「如何用積木做出有趣東西的傻瓜指南」。而現在,我們站在十字路口上。我們站在十字路口上,因為作為一個文化我們說我們唯一關心的事、我們唯一願意跨越街道過去的地方、我們唯一願意買的東西、我們唯一願意投票給他的人、我們唯一願意談論的東西,要是有趣的、是藝術、新穎的、會感動我們的、有價值的。接著我們花上我們所有的錢和我們所有的時間來教導人們不要這樣做。因此我們現在站在這十字路口上,是因為科技也在這裡。而科技說,你知道嗎,史上第一次,我們不需要人類站在我們旁邊來教我們解開根號。史上第一次,我們不需要人類教導我們如何磨利斧頭,因為網路把我們全部連結在一起了。

And so I wanna share with you eight things that I think are gonna change completely if we decide how we wanna answer this question or maybe even if we don't. One, as Sal Khan has pointed out: homework during the day, lectures at night. World-class lecturers lecture on anything you wanna learn to every single person in the world who's got an Internet connection for free. And then all day go and sit with a human being, a teacher, and ask your questions and do your work, and explore face-to-face. It's stupid to have the same lecture being given handmade ten thousand times a day across the country when we can get one person to do it great for the people who want to hear it.
所以我想和你們分享,如果我們決定我們要如何回答這個問題,或也許如果我們甚至不想回答這問題時,我認為會完全改變的八件事。第一,像Sal Khan(美國孟加拉藉教育家)曾指出的:白天做功課,晚上上課。世界級的講師會免費教導世界上每一個有網路連線的人任何你們想要學的東西。然後白天整天都去和一個人,一位老師坐在一起,問你的問題和做你的事,並面對面地來探索。當我們能為那些想聽課的人找到一個可以教得很好的人時,還要每天在全國親自教授相同的課程上萬次的話,那是很愚蠢的。

Number two, open book, open note all the time. There is zero value in memorizing anything ever again. Anything that is worth memorizing is worth looking up. So we shouldn't spend any time teaching people to memorize stuff.
第二,每次都開書考(註二)。背熟任何東西再也沒有絲毫價值。每個值得記下的事也都值得查詢。所以我們不該花任何時間教導人們背東背西。

Number three, access to any course anywhere in the world anytime you wanna take it. So this notion that we have to do things in a certain order, which is based on physical location and chronology, makes no sense.
第三,在世界上的任何地方都能隨時上到任何你想要上的課。所以我們必須要基於實際地點和學年度以特定的次序來做事這種概念沒有道理可言。

Number four, precise focused education instead of mass batch stuff. That's the way we make almost everything we buy now, right? It used to be you could have any color of car you wanted as long as it's black, so we could keep the assembly line going. But now they make ten thousand kinds of cars because they can. So we should make ten thousand kinds of education. No more multiple-choice exams. Those were invented to make them easy to score but computers are smarter than that: Measuring experience instead of test scores because experience is what we really care about. The end of compliance as an outcome: The resume is a...is proof that you have complied for years and years and years with famous brand names, and it gets you your next job. It's worthless now. And cooperation instead of isolation: Why do we do anything where we ask people to do it all by themselves, and then we put them in the real world and say, "Cooperate."
第四,要有確切的重點教育,而不是一大批的東西。那是我們製造我們現在會購買的幾乎每個東西的方式,對吧?過去你可以買任何你想要顏色的車,只要它是黑色的(註三),這樣我們就可以讓組裝線繼續生產。但現在他們可以做出上萬種的車,因為他們就是可以。所以我們應該做出上萬種的教育方式。再也沒有多選題考試。它們是發明來能讓他們更容易打分數,但電腦比那聰明多了
:衡量經驗而不是考試分數,因為經驗才是我們真正關心的。終結順從作為結局:履歷是個...是你已順從知名品牌許多、許多、許多年的證明,而它讓你得到你下一份工作。它現在毫無價值了。以合作取代孤立:為什麼我們要做任何叫別人完全自己做的事,然後我們把他們放到現實世界中並說:「要合作」。

Four more. Teacher's role transforms into coach: lifelong learning with work happening earlier in your life, and really important the death of the famous college. Not good college. We don't know what a good college is, but we know what a famous college is because someone ranked them as famous or because they have a football team that's famous. Why on earth are we paying extra, why on earth are we working harder to comply and be obedient? Just so we get a famous brand name that has no relevance to success or happiness put after our name.
還有四個。老師的角色轉換成教練:伴隨著你人生中較早期工作的終身學習、以及很重要的知名大學的逝去。不是指好的大學。我們不知道好的大學是指什麼,但我們知道知名大學是什麼,因為某人把它們排名為知名大學,或是因為他們有個知名的橄欖球隊。我們究竟為何要多付錢、究竟為何要更努力的工作來順從且變得服從?只是這樣我們便能夠得到一個和成功或幸福毫無關聯的名牌名字,放在我們名字後面。

I wanna show you one more device I have over here as I started. This is called an Arduino. And it's a little bit like a Raspberry Pi. They're both electronic devices that cost twenty to thirty dollars each. Raspberry Pi, which you can buy for twenty-five dollars, has on it the complete Linux operating system, a USB port, audio out, and a monitor. So if we take that cable and that keyboard and that monitor we already have in front of almost every kid in this country and hand them one of these. We can then say to them, "Go build something interesting. And ask if you need help." Why wouldn't we want to teach our kids to go do something interesting? Why wouldn't we wanna teach our kids to figure it out? And yet, every day we send kids to school and say, "Do not figure it out. Do not ask questions I do not know the answer, too. Do not look it up. Do not vary from the curriculum. And better, better, better, better, better comply, fit in. Be like your peers. Do what you're told, because I must process you; because everything in my evaluation is based on whether or not I process you properly."
我要給你們再看看一個我開始時在這裡就有的設備。這叫做Arduino。它有一點點像Raspberry Pi (Linux系統的迷你電腦)。它們都是每個價值二十到三十美金的電子設備。Raspberry Pi,你可以花二十五美金(約七百五十台幣)買到,在它上面有完整的Linux作業系統、USB插孔、音源輸出孔和一個螢幕。所以如果我們把那條電線、那個鍵盤和我們已經有的顯示器,放在這個國家幾乎所有的小孩面前,並遞給他們一個這個。然後我們可以對他們說:「去做些有趣的東西吧。如果需要幫助就開口問。」為什麼我們不想要教導我們的孩子去做些有趣的東西?為什麼我們不想教導孩子去理解?然而,每天我們都送孩子到學校並說:「不要理解。也不要問我不知道答案的問題。不要去查詢。不要偏離課表。最好、最好、最好、最好、最好要順從、融入。像你的同儕一樣。去做你被吩咐的事,因為我必須要對你加工,因為我做的評量中的一切都是基於是否我有確實地加工你。

So there are two myths I wanna close with. The first one and we gotta be really honest with ourselves about this: Myth one, great performance in school leads to happiness and success. If that's not true, we should stop telling ourselves it is. And two, great parents have kids who produce great performance in school. If that's not true, we should stop telling ourselves it is. Are we asking our kids to collect dots or connect dots? Because we're really good at measuring how many dots they collect, how many facts they have memorized, how many boxes they have filled in, but we teach nothing about how to connect those dots. You cannot teach connecting dots in a Dummies manual. You cannot teach connecting dots in a textbook. You could only do it by putting kids into a situation where they can fail. Grades are an illusion. Passion and insight are reality. Your work is more important than your congruence to an answer key. Persistence in the face of a skeptical authority figure is priceless, and yet we undermine it. Fitting in is a short-term strategy that gets you nowhere; standing out is a long-term strategy that takes guts and produces results. If you care enough about your work to be willing to be criticized for it, then you have done a good day's work.
我想要以兩個迷思來作結。第一個也是我們一定要對自己很誠實的是這個:第一個迷思, 學校裡的良好表現會帶來幸福及成功。如果這是不對的,我們應該停止告訴我們自己這是對的。還有第二,優秀的父母會有在學校有良好表現的孩子。如果這是不對的,我們應該停止告訴我們自己這是對的。我們是在叫孩子蒐集人生中的點點滴滴還是將那些點滴串連在一起?因為我們真的很擅長衡量他們蒐集了多少點滴、他們背下多少論點、他們填滿多少格子(出席表),但我們都沒有教怎麼將那些點滴串連在一起。你無法在傻瓜手冊裡教如何將點點滴滴串接起來。你無法在教科書裡教如何將點點滴滴串接起來。你只能把孩子丟到一個他們會失敗的情境裡來做到這點。成績是個假像。熱情和洞察力才是現實。你的工作比起你和解答的一致性還要重要。在一個多疑的權威人物面前的堅持是無價的,然而我們卻漸漸地破壞它。隨波逐流是個不會帶給你任何結果的短期策略;堅持抵抗是需要膽量的長期策略,而且會產生成效。如果你足夠在乎你的工作,願意為它受人品頭論足,那麼你已經完成了一整天有效率的工作。

So what now? What now? What should we do? Because we've been talking about it a whole lot. Only one thing: Ask the question, "What is school for?" When they say this is our new textbook, the question is, "Is that gonna help us with getting what school is for?" When they say this is the new superintendent, we need to say, "Yes, but is this superintendent going to help us do what we think school is for?" And if you don't know what school is for, then have a conversation about it, because until we can agree what school is for, we're not gonna get what we need.
所以那現在呢?那現在呢?我們應該做些什麼?因為我們一直在講它講了一大堆。只有一件事:問這個問題「學校是做什麼用的?」當他們說這是我們新的教科書,要問的問題是:「這會幫助我們了解學校是做什麼用的嗎?」當他們說這是新的負責人,我們得說:「是的,但這個負責人將會幫助我們做到那些我們認為學校要做的事嗎?」而如果你不知道學校是做什麼用的,就談談它吧,因為直到我們能夠一致同意學校是做什麼用的之前,我們都不會得到我們所需要的東西。

Thank you for the work you do. I appreciate it.
感謝你們所做的事。我很感激。

註一:Normal原意是「一般的」,但normal school我們通稱為師範學校。
註二:Open book, Open note是我們說的「開書考」,顧名思義,就是開著課本、筆記考試,在美國是一種較為普遍的考試方式,不強迫學生背誦記憶。
註三:引用亨利福特說過的名言:"You can Have Any Color as Long as It's Black."意思是說,他的福特車只有黑色的

  • 「最前線、最尖端」- Cutting Edge

    Have you thought at all, as people on the "cutting edge", as people who are interested in making school work again, about a very simple question: What is school for?
    身為走在尖端的人、有志要讓學校再次運作的人,你們究竟可曾想過一個非常簡單的問題:學校是做什麼用的?

  • 「趕上、提出、準備好」- Come Up With

    ...and she "came up with" this notion (she was a mathematician in the late 1800s)...
    ...她提出這樣的概念(她是十九世紀晚期的一名數學家)...

  • 「整理、分類、解決問題」- Sort Out

    ...and there was this huge need to sort them all out.
    ...而也有要替他們全部分級的極大需求。

  • 「放棄」- Give Up

    ...but because he "gave it up", because he called it out...
    ...但因為他放棄了它,因為他挑戰了它...

  • 「挑戰、大聲喊、召喚」- Call Out

    ...but because he gave it up, because he "called it out"...
    ...但因為他放棄了它,因為他挑戰了它...

  • 「大聲說、不顧忌地說出」- Speak Up

    ...because he dared to "speak up" against a system that was working.
    ...因為他竟敢大聲對抗一個運行中的體制。

  • 「來、繼續、前進」- Go Ahead

    I'd like everyone to "go ahead" and raise your right hand just as high as you possibly can.
    我要各位來舉起你們的右手,能舉多高就多高。

  • 「保留、抑制、退縮」- Hold Back

    My instructions were pretty clear and yet you all "held back". How come?
    我的指示非常清楚,然而你們都有所保留。怎麼會這樣?

  • 「離開、移開」- Move Off

    We don't have enough people who are willing to "move off" the farm.
    我們沒有足夠的人願意離開農場。

  • 「照順序、情況良好」- In Order

    Would you say, "Ok, there's a test tomorrow. I want you to memorize the top fifty batters "in order" by batting average?"
    你會說:「Ok, 明天有個考試。我要你們以打擊率順序記下前五十名最頂尖的打者」嗎?

  • 「想出、計算出」- Figure Out

    What people do quite naturally is, if it's work, they try to "figure out" how to do less.
    人們非常自然而然會做的是,如果是份工作,他們試著想出怎麼做更少。

  • 「站在十字路口、面臨重大抉擇」- At A Crossroads

    And now, we're "at a crossroads".
    而現在,我們站在十字路口上。

  • 「指出、提出」- Point Out

    One, as Sal Khan has "pointed out": homework during the day, lectures at night.
    第一,像Sal Khan(美國孟加拉藉教育家)曾指出的:白天做功課,晚上上課。

  • 「究竟、到底」- On Earth

    Why "on earth" are we paying extra, why on earth are we working harder to comply and be obedient?
    我們究竟為何要多付錢、究竟為何要更努力的工作來順從且變得服從?

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