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「臉書個資外洩風波延燒,全球用戶爆發出走潮」- The Key to Understanding Facebook's Current Crisis


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Facebook and its CEO Mark Zuckerberg are under a ton of pressure right now—so much pressure that Zuckerberg nervously sat down with CNN to say this:
臉書及其執行長馬克‧祖克柏現正遭受龐大無比的壓力--這壓力大到讓祖克柏焦慮地與 CNN 坐下進行訪談發表這段言論:

You know, I think what's clear is that in 2016, we were not as on top of a number of issues as we should have, whether it was Russian interference or fake news.
我想很清楚的一點是,在 2016 年時,我們沒有好好去掌控一些議題,無論是俄羅斯的干預還是假新聞都是。

The latest issue? Facebook admitted that a developer who had accessed the data of 50 million Facebook users later sold it to a political firm called Cambridge Analytica. That firm was later hired by the Trump campaign. Facebook says both parties violated its policies, but many users feel the company could have done more to protect their data, and a growing number of people say they're leaving the site.
那麼最近一項議題是什麼?臉書承認一名開發者取得五千萬名臉書用戶個資,之後轉售給一間名為「劍橋分析」的政治顧問公司。那間公司後來受川普陣營雇用。臉書表示雙方都違反了它的政策,但許多用戶覺得臉書公司本來可以採取更多行動來保護用戶資料,因此有越來越多人說他們要從臉書出走。

So, this is 2018, but to understand what's happening today, you have to look back to Facebook's policies between 2007 and 2015. In 2007, Facebook opened its platform to developers, meaning it allowed outside apps to access all kinds of user data.
現在是 2018 年,不過要了解目前發生的事,你必須回頭看臉書在 2007 年到 2015 年間的政策。2007 年時,臉書向開發者開放平台,也就代表允許外來應用程式取得各種用戶資料。

Did you ever play the game FarmVille? Or did you ever use Tinder or Spotify? You may have noticed that when you use these apps, they ask you to sign in through Facebook. Back then, Facebook allowed apps not just to access your information, but also to access the information of your friends, and that helped the apps and advertisers better understand your preferences.
你玩過 FarmVille 這款遊戲嗎?或者你是否曾用過 Tinder 或 Spotify?你或許有注意到,在你使用這些應用程式時,它們會要求你透過臉書登入。 那時候,臉書不僅允許應用程式存取你的資料,也允許它們存取你好友的資料,而那協助應用程式及廣告商更了解你的偏好。

During this time, Facebook became a fixture in its users' lives. By allowing access to that data, Facebook paved the way for all kinds of apps...to help people find dates, search for jobs, be productive, and stay entertained. It also ushered in a new style of political campaigning.
在這段期間,臉書成為它的用戶生活中不可或缺的一部分。藉由允許存取用戶資料,臉書讓各式各樣的應用程式成為可能...幫人們找到約會對象、找工作、提高成效、獲得娛樂。它也開創了新型態的競選活動。

The new Obama 2012 smartphone app has everything you need to get the president's back wherever you go.
2012 年全新「歐巴馬」智慧型手機應用程式內應有盡有,讓你走到哪都能力挺總統。

And that in turn fueled the social networks' growth. In 2007, Facebook had 58 million users; today, it has more than two billion.
那因而刺激了社群網路的成長。2007 年,臉書擁有五千八百萬名用戶;如今,它擁有超過二十億用戶。

But back to that period we were talking about. In 2014, Facebook dialed way back on its data-sharing policies. It announced that it would restrict the data that apps could access, and it would stop allowing developers from getting the information of your friends without their consent. Those changes were implemented in 2015. But this period in Facebook's history had already opened the company up to some of the massive problems it's facing today.
不過,回到我們剛才討論的那個時期。2014 年,臉書大幅約束其資料分享政策。它宣告將會限制應用程式可以取得的資料,且不再讓開發者未經用戶好友同意就取得他們的資訊。那些改制在 2015 年施行。不過臉書歷史上的這段時期已經造成公司目前要面對的其中一些嚴重問題。

If you pass on that amount of information to somebody who's trying to manipulate you politically, then of course they're able to exploit your vulnerabilities and send you customized messages that no one else will see, and no one knows what those messages are.
如果你將那樣的資訊量傳給某個試圖要就政治方面操縱你的人,那他們當然能夠利用你的弱點,然後傳送別人看不到且專為你打造的訊息,而且沒人知道那些訊息的內容。

In 2013, when all of this data was still available, a Cambridge University researcher accessed the information of 50 million Facebook users. That data was ultimately sold, against Facebook's policies, to Cambridge Analytica. Cambridge Analytica says it's launching its own investigation to determine if the firm engaged in any wrongdoing. Now, Facebook says it's investigating all of the apps that had access to massive amounts of user information. But that's a lot of apps, a lot of Facebook users, and a lot of their friends.
2013 年,當這所有資料仍可取得時,一名劍橋大學的研究人員取得五千萬名臉書用戶的個資。那資料最後被售出,在有違臉書政策的情況下被賣給劍橋分析公司。劍橋分析公司表示它正展開自家的調查,查明公司是否有涉及任何不法情事。現在,臉書表示正在調查所有曾取得大量用戶資料的應用程式。不過那可是許多應用程式、許多臉書用戶以及他們的好友。

Well, it's hard to know what we'll find, but we're going to review thousands of apps.
嗯,很難知道我們會發現什麼,不過我們將會仔細審查數千個應用程式。

  • 「回顧、回頭看」- Look Back

    So, this is 2018, but to understand what's happening today, you have to look back to Facebook's policies between 2007 and 2015.
    現在是 2018 年,不過要了解目前發生的事,你必須回頭看臉書在 2007 年到 2015 年間的政策。

  • 「登入」- Sign In

    You may have noticed that when you use these apps, they ask you to sign in through Facebook.
    你或許有注意到,在你使用這些應用程式時,它們會要求你透過臉書登入。

  • 「為...鋪路、使...成為可能」- Pave The Way For

    By allowing access to that data, Facebook paved the way for all kinds of apps...
    藉由允許存取用戶資料,臉書讓各式各樣的應用程式成為可能...

  • 「引進、開創」- Usher In

    It also ushered in a new style of political campaigning.
    它也開創了新型態的競選活動。

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