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「兩分鐘動畫帶你了解『土壤液化』」- What Happened to This Car?


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On June 7, 1692, the Jamaican city of Port Royal, a notorious pirate haven, sank into its own harbor. This disaster—or blessing, depending on who you ask—was caused by liquefaction of the ground following a major earthquake. And we know it happened at exactly 11:43 a.m. thanks to a pocket watch that went down along with two-thirds of the town and over 2,000 people.
1692 年 6 月 7 日,牙買加皇家港口市,一個惡名昭彰的海盜窩,沉入自己港內。這場災難--或好事,看你問誰--是因伴隨一場大地震的土壤液化所造成的。而我們知道確切發生時間是早上 11 點 43 分,因為一只隨三分之二的城鎮和超過兩千人一起沉沒的懷錶。

Liquefaction happens when waterlogged, loose soil—we call it sand—turns into quicksand, temporarily. If you look closely at sand, you'll realize that it's actually comprised of tons of tiny rocks, and their roundness and roughly uniformed size mean there's space between them that can get filled by water. When we step on saturated sand at the water's edge, it's fairly stable because the particles get pushed together and rest on each other, while any excess water escapes by flowing away to where the pressure is lower.
液化發生的時機是當浸飽水、鬆軟的土壤--我們稱之沙子--暫時變成流沙的時候。如果你細看沙子,你會發現它其實是由許多小石子組成,它們球狀且大致相同的尺寸代表中間有能被水填滿的空間。當我們站在水邊濕透的沙地上時,它頗為穩固,因為沙粒被推擠在一起並交疊,而任何多餘水分則藉由流向壓力較低的地方排出。

We can and do build buildings on wet, sandy soil since the weight of the grains and the friction between them makes the soil behave as a solid most of the time. But in an earthquake, soil particles repeatedly jostle back and forth so much that the water can't flow away. Loosely packed dry soils tend to compress under stress, but with incompressible water unable to escape the gaps between grains, the soil can't compress and the water takes the load. Unfortunately, water, as a liquid, doesn't have much structural integrity—so if the saturated soil is forced to compress too much, too quickly, it'll start to act like a liquid, and dense objects resting on the now liquefied soil will sink.
我們可以而且的確會在潮濕、不穩的土地上建房子,因為土壤微粒的重量和之間的摩擦力使土壤大多時候表現得像固體。不過地震時,土壤微粒太過持續來回推擠,以致水無法排走。鬆散的乾燥土壤在壓力下容易擠壓,但隨著不可壓縮的水無法從土粒間的空隙排掉,土壤無法擠壓而水就要承受壓力。不幸地是,水,作為液體,結構完整性並不太夠--因此假如飽水的土壤被迫擠壓太過、太快,它就會開始表現得像液體一般,而位於如今液化的土壤上的密集物體就會沉沒。

You can experience liquefaction for yourself in the water-soaked sand near the edge of a beach. It feels pretty solid if you stand still, but if you wiggle your feet, the movement causes the sand to liquefy beneath you, and you start sinking. On a larger scale, earthquake-induced liquefaction can swallow cars, roads, and even enormous apartment complexes. In other words, earthquakes can create quicksand, except that when the shaking stops and the soil particles are no longer suspended in water, the ground solidifies again, and anything that sank becomes stuck, which is what happened to this car.
你可以在海濱附近浸滿水的沙地親自體驗液化現象。如果你站著不動,地面感覺滿牢靠的,但如果你動動你的腳,那動作會使沙地在你腳下液化,而你就開始下沉。較大規模下,地震引發的土壤液化能吞噬車輛、道路,甚至龐大的公寓大樓。也就是說,地震能造成流沙,只不過當晃動停止然後土粒不再浮於水中時,土壤會再度變牢固,而任何先前沉下去的東西會困在其中,也就是這台車的情況。

  • 「取決於」- Depend On

    This disaster—or blessing, depending on who you ask—was caused by liquefaction of the ground following a major earthquake.
    這場災難--或好事,看你問誰--是因伴隨一場大地震的土壤液化所造成的。

  • 「由於、幸虧」- Thanks To

    ...thanks to a pocket watch that went down along with two-thirds of the town and over 2,000 people.
    ...因為一只隨三分之二的城鎮和超過兩千人一起沉沒的懷錶。

  • 「和...一道」- Along With

    ...thanks to a pocket watch that went down along with two-thirds of the town and over 2,000 people.
    ...因為一只隨三分之二的城鎮和超過兩千人一起沉沒的懷錶。

  • 「變成」- Turn Into

    Liquefaction happens when waterlogged, loose soil—we call it sand—turns into quicksand, temporarily.
    液化發生的時機是當浸飽水、鬆軟的土壤--我們稱之沙子--暫時變成流沙的時候。

  • 「許多、大量」- Tons Of

    If you look closely at sand, you'll realize that it's actually comprised of tons of tiny rocks...
    如果你細看沙子,你會發現它其實是由許多小石子組成...

  • 「來來回回地」- Back And Forth

    But in an earthquake, soil particles repeatedly jostle back and forth so much that the water can't flow away.
    不過地震時,土壤微粒太過持續來回推擠,以致水無法排走。

  • 「換言之、也就是說」- In Other Words

    In other words, earthquakes can create quicksand...
    也就是說,地震能造成流沙...

  • 「不再」- No Longer

    ...except that when the shaking stops and the soil particles are no longer suspended in water, the ground solidifies again...
    ...只不過當晃動停止然後土粒不再浮於水中時,土壤會再度變牢固...

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