Hey! It's me, Destin. Welcome to Smarter Every Day. So today's episode's a little bit different. I have a question about breathing. It's pretty simple. See, our bags are packed and we're about to go to the hospital to have our third child. And my question is this: How do you go from this, my baby in my baby, to this?
嘿!是我，Destin。歡迎來到Smarter Every Day。所以今天這集有點不一樣。我有個關於呼吸的問題。它很簡單。你看我們打包好了要去醫院生我們的第三個小孩。而我的問題是：你要如何從這個，在我寶貝老婆肚子裡的小寶寶，變成這個？
Now, seventy-two hours ago, my son was inside my wife, but now he's not. He's no longer in a liquid environment. He's in the gaseous environment. So something has to change, and in fact, it's awesome. To learn more about this, let's go talk to somebody that's smarter than me. Well, my wife could do it, but she's tired. Good night! Good night!
Alright, so to figure out how babies go from living in a liquid environment to an air environment, we had to come to the smart guy's house. So, we came to a doctor's house. Spiral staircase, you know he's smart. So, let's go check him out. Hey, how's it going? Hey, Destin. So this is Dr. Schuster, and Dr. Schuster is...a baby delivering doctor we'll call you for the video. Alright.
So, he also plays music, so that lets you know that he's really really smart. So we're gonna get some info from him. Ok, so my question is pretty simple. How do we go from breathing fluid inside the mother's womb, to breathing air?
As the baby's coming out, and gets squeezed as it's coming through the birth canal, all that fluid that's been in the lungs, which is the urine from the baby and the poop from the baby, I mean, all the bad stuff, once they get squeezed, that stuff comes out, and that baby takes that very first gasp, that gasp of oxygen, the thing that the baby needs. That triggers huge changes in the circulation of the baby, and that's what allows everything to start working. The baby's breathing on its own then.
So there's actually like a switch that's flipped or something when the baby breathes for the first time?
A couple of valves have changed the circulation, changed the plumbing, if you will, in the heart. Really? Hmm.
So where these valves...these valves are actually in the heart?
The top half of the heart. Yeah! There's something called the Foramen Ovale, which is just a big flap that sits between the right and left atrium. It closes, once that baby gets that first little bit of oxygen, that first breath.
Ok, so that's pretty amazing. So the first time the baby takes a breath... That's why that first cry is so special, because that's actually the moment where the baby's autonomous.
It's all breathing. Yeah. It goes from breathing its own poop to breathing real oxygen, the real nutrients that it needs for life.
Oh, that's awesome. Thank you very much. Anytime. Glad to do it!
Alright, we've got a little man. Let's check him out. He's alive and well, and his lungs are working, and he's breathing air. One thing that happened right when he came out is this right here. After he started squealing a little bit, I could hear that...I could hear that change when he went from fluid to air. The nurse brought him over here, and she stuck this tube down his throat, and she started sucking amniotic fluid.
This little guy started telling us what he thought about everything. Checking him out, getting there see his face. Mmmmhmmm. That's what I'm talking about. Check this out.
It's an ultrasound from five months ago when he was still in the womb. This is real data. If you look close, you can see all four chambers of the heart. If you look even closer, you can see that little thing that Dr. Schuster was talking about.
Ok, I didn't understand that so I had to get my wife to put it on engineering paper so I could figure it out. So, in your heart, you have four chambers, and the blood, as it exits the lungs, it goes through the heart and comes back to your body. And after it exits your body, it goes back through the heart and then goes back to the lungs. We all know this. But here's the deal with the heart before the baby comes out the womb.
You have something here called the Foramen Ovale, and you have here something called the Ductus Arteriosus. I hear you, buddy. Hold on! So what's going on here is before birth, the Foramen Ovale and the Ductus Arteriosus divert blood from the lungs. So what that means is only about seven percent of the blood flow goes to the lungs. Daddy's here. Hold on!
So basically, before birth the lungs are really really small. They are not inflated, because the Foramen Ovale and the Ductus Arteriosus, which is right here, diverts that blood flow. So, once it flips over, the Foramen Ovale closes in about an hour, and the Ductus Arteriosus goes away and becomes a ligament after about five days. I think this is really awesome. You can see that the blood flow goes back to a hundred percent for the lungs, and the ugh...alright, I'll go get him. You're getting Smarter Every Day.
The nurses are gone, so I started messing around with their stuff. Woah! Check that out. Alright. Now I turn on a super light. This is...this is active tracking.
Are you asleep? Not anymore!
Just bear with me. Look at this. I found a magic wand. What? Alright, so watch this. So, there's a big light spot, and if I hold the magic wand at the light spot, and I start blinking away, the lights will follow the magic wand. It tracks it. So, it's actively tracking this bulb.