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「嬰兒出生瞬間的第一次呼吸」- Why You Didn't Die at Birth


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Hey! It's me, Destin. Welcome to Smarter Every Day. So today's episode's a little bit different. I have a question about breathing. It's pretty simple. See, our bags are packed and we're about to go to the hospital to have our third child. And my question is this: How do you go from this, my baby in my baby, to this?
嘿!是我,Destin。歡迎來到Smarter Every Day。所以今天這集有點不一樣。我有個關於呼吸的問題。它很簡單。你看我們打包好了要去醫院生我們的第三個小孩。而我的問題是:你要如何從這個,在我寶貝老婆肚子裡的小寶寶,變成這個?

Now, seventy-two hours ago, my son was inside my wife, but now he's not. He's no longer in a liquid environment. He's in the gaseous environment. So something has to change, and in fact, it's awesome. To learn more about this, let's go talk to somebody that's smarter than me. Well, my wife could do it, but she's tired. Good night! Good night!
於是,七十二小時之前,我兒子還在我老婆體內,但現在不在了。他不再處於一個液態的環境中。他在氣態的環境裡面。所以某些東西得有所改變,而事實上,這很棒。要更瞭解相關消息,去跟某個比我更聰明的人談談吧。嗯,我的老婆可以,但她很累。晚安!晚安!

Alright, so to figure out how babies go from living in a liquid environment to an air environment, we had to come to the smart guy's house. So, we came to a doctor's house. Spiral staircase, you know he's smart. So, let's go check him out. Hey, how's it going? Hey, Destin. So this is Dr. Schuster, and Dr. Schuster is...a baby delivering doctor we'll call you for the video. Alright.
好吧,所以要搞清楚嬰兒如何從一個液態環境轉換到氣態環境之中,我們必須到聰明人的家。所以我們來到醫生的家。螺旋樓梯,你知道他很聰明。所以,我們來找他吧。嘿,你好嗎?嘿,Destin。所以這是Schuster醫生,而Schuster醫生是...在影片中我們稱你為嬰兒接生醫生。好啊。

So, he also plays music, so that lets you know that he's really really smart. So we're gonna get some info from him. Ok, so my question is pretty simple. How do we go from breathing fluid inside the mother's womb, to breathing air?
那麼,他也演奏音樂,而那讓你知道他真的真的很聰明。因此我們要從他身上得到一點資訊。好,所以我的問題很簡單。我們如何從在母親子宮中呼吸液體,轉變成呼吸空氣?

As the baby's coming out, and gets squeezed as it's coming through the birth canal, all that fluid that's been in the lungs, which is the urine from the baby and the poop from the baby, I mean, all the bad stuff, once they get squeezed, that stuff comes out, and that baby takes that very first gasp, that gasp of oxygen, the thing that the baby needs. That triggers huge changes in the circulation of the baby, and that's what allows everything to start working. The baby's breathing on its own then.
當嬰兒出來時,在通過產道時受到擠壓,所有在肺部裡面的液體,也就是嬰兒的尿液和嬰兒的排泄物,我是說,所有髒東西,它們一旦受到擠壓,那些東西跑了出來,而嬰兒喘了第一口氣,那吸入的氧氣,嬰兒所需要的東西。那引起了嬰兒循環系統巨大的改變,而且就是那口氣讓所有事物開始運作。嬰兒從此靠自己呼吸。

So there's actually like a switch that's flipped or something when the baby breathes for the first time?
所以當嬰兒第一次呼吸,真有個像開關的東西被打開還是怎樣?

A couple of valves have changed the circulation, changed the plumbing, if you will, in the heart. Really? Hmm.
有些閘門改變了心臟裡面的循環,改變了管線,如果你想這樣說。真的嗎?嗯。

So where these valves...these valves are actually in the heart?
所這些閘門...這些閘門到底在心臟中的哪個位置?

The top half of the heart. Yeah! There's something called the Foramen Ovale, which is just a big flap that sits between the right and left atrium. It closes, once that baby gets that first little bit of oxygen, that first breath.
心臟的上半部。對!有個叫做「卵圓孔」的東西,它就是個坐落在左右心房之間的大蓋子。一旦嬰兒得到最初一點點的氧氣,那第一次呼吸,它就關上了。

Ok, so that's pretty amazing. So the first time the baby takes a breath... That's why that first cry is so special, because that's actually the moment where the baby's autonomous.
好,所以那很神奇。所以第一次嬰兒吸一口氣...那就是為什麼第一聲哭喊是這麼特別,因為其實就在那一瞬間嬰兒開始獨自生存了。

It's all breathing. Yeah. It goes from breathing its own poop to breathing real oxygen, the real nutrients that it needs for life.
全都跟呼吸有關。是的。它從呼出自己的排泄物到吸入真正的氧氣,生命所需的真正養分。

Oh, that's awesome. Thank you very much. Anytime. Glad to do it!
噢,那太棒了。非常感謝。別客氣。很高興能參與!

Alright, we've got a little man. Let's check him out. He's alive and well, and his lungs are working, and he's breathing air. One thing that happened right when he came out is this right here. After he started squealing a little bit, I could hear that...I could hear that change when he went from fluid to air. The nurse brought him over here, and she stuck this tube down his throat, and she started sucking amniotic fluid.
好,我們這裡有個小伙子。來看看他吧。他生龍活虎的,他的肺部正在運作,而且他正在呼吸空氣。就在他出生那一刻發生了一件事情,就是這邊這個。在他開始發出一點尖銳的聲音之後,我能聽到那聲音...當他從液態環境來到氣態環境時,我能聽到那個改變。護士將他帶到這裡,然後她把這根管子插入他喉嚨,開始吸出羊水。

This little guy started telling us what he thought about everything. Checking him out, getting there see his face. Mmmmhmmm. That's what I'm talking about. Check this out.
這小傢伙開始告訴我們他對每件事物的想法。看看他,到這裡看看他的臉。嗯哼。那就是我所說的。看過來。

It's an ultrasound from five months ago when he was still in the womb. This is real data. If you look close, you can see all four chambers of the heart. If you look even closer, you can see that little thing that Dr. Schuster was talking about.
這是五個月以前他還在子宮裡的超音波。這是真實記錄。如果你靠近點看,你可以看到全部心臟的四個心室。假如你再更靠近一點看,你可以看到Schuster醫生所提到的那個小東西。

Ok, I didn't understand that so I had to get my wife to put it on engineering paper so I could figure it out. So, in your heart, you have four chambers, and the blood, as it exits the lungs, it goes through the heart and comes back to your body. And after it exits your body, it goes back through the heart and then goes back to the lungs. We all know this. But here's the deal with the heart before the baby comes out the womb.
好,我並不了解那個所以必須讓我老婆將它畫到工程圖上我才看得懂。所以,在你的心臟裡,你有四個心室,然後血液,當它離開肺部時,它穿過心臟回到身體中。然後離開身體之後,它回去通過心臟然後回到肺裡。我們都了解這個。但這是在嬰兒離開子宮前心臟的情況。

You have something here called the Foramen Ovale, and you have here something called the Ductus Arteriosus. I hear you, buddy. Hold on! So what's going on here is before birth, the Foramen Ovale and the Ductus Arteriosus divert blood from the lungs. So what that means is only about seven percent of the blood flow goes to the lungs. Daddy's here. Hold on!
你這裡有某種叫做「卵圓孔」的東西,而且你這裡還有個叫做「動脈導管」的東西。我聽到你了,小子。等等!所以這裡發生的就是在出生之前,「卵圓孔」和「動脈導管」把血液從肺部引開。所以那意思是大約只有百分之七的血流到肺部。老爸在這裡。等等!

So basically, before birth the lungs are really really small. They are not inflated, because the Foramen Ovale and the Ductus Arteriosus, which is right here, diverts that blood flow. So, once it flips over, the Foramen Ovale closes in about an hour, and the Ductus Arteriosus goes away and becomes a ligament after about five days. I think this is really awesome. You can see that the blood flow goes back to a hundred percent for the lungs, and the ugh...alright, I'll go get him. You're getting Smarter Every Day.
所以基本上,在出生之前肺部非常非常小。它們還沒有膨脹起來,因為「卵圓孔」和「動脈導管」,它們就在那兒,導引開血流。所以,它一旦翻轉過來,「卵圓孔」在大約一小時之內關閉,而且大約五天之後「動脈導管」離開變成一條繫帶。我認為這真的很棒。你可以看到血液百分之百回流至肺部,還有啊...好吧,我去抱他了。你每天都變得更聰明。

The nurses are gone, so I started messing around with their stuff. Woah! Check that out. Alright. Now I turn on a super light. This is...this is active tracking.
護士走了,所以我開始亂弄他們的東西。嘩!看看那個。好吧。現在我打開超級手電筒了。這是...這是主動追蹤。

Are you asleep? Not anymore!
妳睡著了嗎?現在醒囉!

Just bear with me. Look at this. I found a magic wand. What? Alright, so watch this. So, there's a big light spot, and if I hold the magic wand at the light spot, and I start blinking away, the lights will follow the magic wand. It tracks it. So, it's actively tracking this bulb.
容忍我一下。看看這個。我找到一個魔法棒。啥?好吧,看好。所以,這有個大光源,如果我拿著魔法棒對著光源,然後我開始閃著光離開,光線會追蹤魔法棒。它追蹤它。所以,它主動追蹤這魔法棒裡的燈泡。

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