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「烏克蘭的分裂危機」- Ukraine Protest 2014: The Divide, Explained


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The recent scenes of violence between the government and the opposition forces in Ukraine look like a war zone with two armies going head to head.
最近烏克蘭政府及反對勢力之間的暴力畫面,看起來就像有兩個軍隊正面交鋒的戰區。

The visuals reflected deepening divide. It's pulling Ukraine in two different directions: one toward Russia, "We will use our influence to bring calm and peace to this country." the other toward Western Europe, "We call on all sides to put an end to violence immediately."
那畫面表現出逐漸深化的分裂。它正將烏克蘭扯向兩個不同方向:一邊朝向俄羅斯「我們會利用我們的影響力,為這個國家帶來平靜與和平。」另外一邊朝向西歐「我們請求雙方立即停止暴力。」

Faced with this division, president Viktor Yanukovych has chosen Russia. Here are some background on the divide with few easy answers.
面對這樣的分裂,總統亞努科維奇選擇俄羅斯。這裡用幾個簡單答案提供一些分裂的背景。

On the Russian side, Vladimir Putin has strong influence over Mr. Yanukovych. The two man have met repeatedly since the beginning of the protests. Putin promised billions in aid to Ukraine. And with the extended economic lifeline, Yanukovych continued to crack down on pro-Western activists at home.
在俄方,普丁對於亞努科維奇有極大的影響力。這兩位男子自從抗議開始就一再會面。普丁承諾援助烏克蘭數十億。有了這長期的經濟命脈,亞努科維奇持續鎮壓國內的親歐活動份子。

Russia has a variety of ways to exert influence. Alexander Motyl, professor of political science and specialist on Ukraine explains, "It was the relationship between a big country and a small-ish, relatively smaller, neighbor. Ukraine is highly dependent on Russia for natural gas, and without that natural gas, much of the economy will come to a halt. Russia has a military base in Ukraine, so there is this kind of weird relationship there as well."
俄羅斯有各種方式來發揮影響力。Alexander Motyl,政治學教授及烏克蘭事務專家,解釋:「那是大國及一個小小的、相對較小的鄰國之間的關係。烏克蘭在天然氣方面相當倚賴俄羅斯,沒有那天然氣,許多經濟活動會停擺。俄羅斯在烏克蘭有軍事基地,所以也有這種奇怪的關係。」

On the other side of the divide are the protesters. While public opinion has split, the movement has maintained support in the face of repeated crackdowns. We don't see any will from the authorities nor from the president for seeking a real solution to this conflict, this horrible political, or should I say human conflict.
在分水嶺的另一邊是其他的抗議者。儘管輿論分歧,抗議活動仍保有支持者,不顧持續的鎮壓。我們沒有看到當局、也沒有看到總統的決心要為這衝突尋求一個確實的解決辦法,這個可怕的政治衝突、或是我應該說人民衝突。

Here's the geographical reality. This is Ukraine with protests centered in Kiev. Through the lands of voting in the 2010 elections, two Ukraines are visible. In the West, they are mostly Ukrainian speakers who lean towards Europe. In that election, they opted for Yulia Tymoshenko—Mr. Yanukovych's now imprisoned rival.
這是地理上的事實。這是烏克蘭,以及集中在基輔的抗議活動。透過2010大選的選票範圍,兩個烏克蘭是顯而易見的。在西部,他們大部分是傾向歐洲說烏克蘭語的人。在那場選舉中,他們選擇了提摩申科--亞努科維奇目前已入獄的競爭者。

In the East, there's a predominantly Russian speaking population. This is Mr. Yanukovych's base with citizens there that are generally more weary of European Union integration. While the majority of protesters in Independence Square are from the West, many have also traveled to Kiev from the East.
在東部,有絕大多數說俄文的人口。這是亞努科維奇的大本營,加上那裡普遍對歐盟整合感到更加厭煩的人民們。雖然在獨立廣場的大多數抗議者是從西部來的,有許多也是從東部來到基輔的。

If you look at the two extremes from two poles, then you do find two very different Ukraines. The East supports Yanukovych; the West detests him. This is the space between the far east and the far west. It's occupied by territories, provinces, peoples, cultures, which evince gradation.
如果你看看這兩極的兩端,然後你確實會發現兩個非常不同的烏克蘭。東部支持亞努科維奇;西部厭惡他。這是遠東和遠西之間的空間。那受制於領土、省份、人民、文化,這引起階段性的變化。

With a divided country, the search for some sort of compromise, with or without Mr. Yanukovych, will likely come in those gradations.
有這麼一個分裂的國家,對於某種妥協的追尋,不管有沒有亞努科維奇,將有可能會在那些階段性變化中起作用。

  • 「正面交鋒、直接挑戰」- Head To Head

    The recent scenes of violence between the government and the opposition forces in Ukraine look like a war zone with two armies going head to head.
    最近烏克蘭政府及反對勢力之間的暴力畫面,看起來就像有兩個軍隊正面交鋒的戰區。

  • 「請求、號召」- Call On

    ...the other toward Western Europe, "We call on all sides to put an end to violence immediately."
    ...另外一邊朝向西歐「我們請求雙方立即停止暴力。」

  • 「停止、結束」- Put An End To

    ...the other toward Western Europe, "We call on all sides to put an end to violence immediately."
    ...另外一邊朝向西歐「我們請求雙方立即停止暴力。」

  • 「鎮壓、制裁」- Crack Down

    And with the extended economic lifeline, Yanukovych continued to crack down on pro-Western activists at home.
    有了這長期的經濟命脈,亞努科維奇持續鎮壓國內的親歐活動份子。

  • 「不顧、儘管、面對」- In The Face Of

    While public opinion has split, the movement has maintained support in the face of repeated crackdowns.
    儘管輿論分歧,抗議活動仍保有支持者,不顧持續的鎮壓。

  • 「選擇、決定」- Opt For

    In that election, they opted for Yulia Tymoshenko—Mr. Yanukovych's now imprisoned rival.
    在那場選舉中,他們選擇了提摩申科--亞努科維奇目前已入獄的競爭者。

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