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「【慷慨科學】你選擇金錢還是給予他人快樂的時光?」- People Choose between Money or Puppies: The Science of Generosity


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They're so cute!
牠們好可愛!

Puppies!
小狗狗!

All right.
好的。

The Science of Generosity
慷慨科學

Ever go to your favorite coffee shop, and when you get to the front to pay, you discover the person before you picked up the tab? It's a nice, warm feeling, right? Even better than your morning coffee—if that's even possible. So, what do you do? Keep it going. The best thing about generosity is it spreads. Research has shown that people who experience the generosity of others are more likely to pay it forward. Being generous puts people in a good mood and tends to make them more generous, and generous people are more attractive as we know, and they will surely go on to breed more generous babies and continue the cycle. I have it all summed up in this chart. See? Easy. Really, the trick to kicking off this whole cascade is getting that one domino at the top to fall. Don't believe me? Good. Then I get to do another experiment. We brought in a group of volunteers and gave them the chance to do something really fun.
你是否曾有過這種經驗:你去了最喜歡的咖啡店,而當你走到櫃台要付錢的時候,你發現你前面的那個人已經幫你結完帳了?這是一種很好、很溫暖的感覺,對吧?甚至比你早晨喝的那杯咖啡還要棒--如果有可能的話。所以說,你要怎麼做?讓它延續下去呀。慷慨最棒的地方就是它會擴散。研究顯示那些經歷過他人慷慨之情的人更有可能把它傳遞下去。慷慨相助能讓人有好心情,而且會讓他們更慷慨,就如我們所知,慷慨的人是更有吸引力,而他們當然也會繼續生下更慷慨的寶寶們並接續這個循環。我把重點都整理在這個表格裡面了。看到了嗎?很簡單吧。說真的,要啟動這一整個瀑布般效應的方式,就是讓頂端的骨牌倒下來。不相信我嗎?很好。那我就可以做另一個實驗了。我們帶進了一批自願者,並且給他們機會做一件非常有趣的事。

Okay. Today, you guys are gonna play with—puppies.
好的。今天,你們大家要跟牠們一起玩--小狗狗們。

Oh my God. Yes!
我的天啊。太棒了!

Yes! This is the day.
太好了!這天終於來了。

Oh my God.
我的天啊。

This is great.
這太棒了。

We told participants they got to play in the pen with the pups for five minutes.
我們跟參與的人說他們可以在柵欄裡面跟狗狗們玩五分鐘。

Hello there.
你好呀。

Oh my goodness gracious!
我的老天爺呀!

Do you want a belly rub? Yes, you do. Yes, you do.
你想要搔肚肚嗎?沒錯,你想要。沒錯,你想要搔肚肚。

This is what I imagined heaven looks like.
這是我想像中天堂的樣子。

No.
不。

All right, gents. So, your five minutes in the pen is up. So, there's a little bit more we have to do today. I'm gonna give you guys a choice. We're still gonna compensate you for your time, as agreed, but you have an opportunity to make an additional 50 dollars.
好的,男士們。你們在柵欄裡的五分鐘時限已經到了。我們今天還有一些事情要做。我要給你們大家一個選擇。我們還是會為你們的時間給予酬勞,就如同我們說好的,但你們有機會可以額外再賺 50 塊美金。

Great. I'm on it. Thank you.
太好了。交給我吧。謝謝。

You can either take the 50 dollars (just put it in your pocket; go home) or you can pass on the 50, and if you pass on the additional 50 dollars, the person after you will also get five minutes to play with the puppies. The person before you was given this same choice, and they chose to pass on the 50, which is why you guys got to play with the puppies, and now it's your turn to make a decision.
你們可以拿走 50 塊美金(就把它收進你的口袋;回家)或是你們可以把這 50 塊傳遞下去,而如果你們把這額外的 50 塊美金傳遞下去,排在你們後面的人也可以有五分鐘來跟狗狗們玩。排在你們之前的人也被給予同樣的選擇,而他們選擇傳遞這 50 塊,這也是為什麼你們大家能夠跟狗狗玩,而現在該輪到你們來做決定了。

Wait. So, it's either we get 50 bucks or somebody else gets to play with puppies for five minutes?
等等。所以是要嘛我們拿到 50 塊錢,要嘛其他人可以跟狗狗們玩五分鐘?

Right.
沒錯。

That's really tough.
那真的好難。

I don't know what to do. Like...
我不知道要怎麼做。就是...

I mean...
我是說...

Just...you wanna give it back? What do you think?
就是...你想要把它還回去嗎?你覺得呢?

Yeah.
好。

If somebody just takes the 50, which they can, then the person who would've gone after them... We just say "Thank you very much for your time," and then we show them the door.
如果有人就拿了這 50 塊錢美金,他們的確可以這麼做,那麼那位在他們後面的人...我們就只會說:「非常感謝你的時間」,然後我們就帶他們離開。

No.
不。

Then, yeah. We'll... I'm gonna give up my 50.
這樣的話,好。我們要...我要放棄我的 50 塊美金。

You're gonna pass on the 50?
你要把這 50 塊傳遞下去?

Yup.
沒錯。

All right.
好的。

I'll pass on the 50, too.
我也要傳遞這 50 塊美金。

Are you also giving up the 50?
你也要放棄這 50 塊?

Yeah.
是的。

It just doesn't feel right to me, so I'm gonna give it back to you. Yeah, I can't.
對我來說,這感覺就是不太對的事情,所以我要把它還給你。對,我無法。

...too good. They gotta be here.
...太美好了。他們必須要來這裡。

Everyone needs a puppy.
每個人都需要狗狗。

I'm not gonna deny anyone the opportunity to play with puppies. There's so much we don't agree on in the world. I think...
我不會拒絕給任何人能跟狗狗玩的機會。在這個世界上我們有那麼多意見不一致的事情。我覺得...

We can give people time to play with puppies.
我們可以給人時間來跟狗狗玩。

...puppies are, like, the one thing...
...狗狗們是,我是說,唯一一件事...

Okay, folks. We're on a roll, but how long can we keep it going?
好的,大夥們。我們接連獲勝,但我們可以讓這份慷慨持續多久呢?

Let them play with puppies?
讓他們跟狗狗玩?

Let them play with puppies.
讓他們跟狗狗玩。

Easy decision.
簡單的決定。

I have to let them have time with the puppies.
我必須讓他們有跟狗狗玩的時間。

Okay.
好的。

Yup. I'll let other people come play.
沒錯。我會讓其他人來玩。

All right, I'll let them play with the puppies.
好的,我會讓他們跟狗狗玩。

I wanna let someone else play with the puppies.
我想要讓其他人跟狗狗玩。

Puppy time, definitely.
狗狗時間,當然囉。

I'm gonna need that 50 dollars back, then.
那我就需要拿回來那 50 塊美金。

You can take this back.
你可以把這個拿回去。

Just like that?
這麼簡單?

Yeah.
對呀。

At the end of the day, 24 out of 25 participants kept that generosity wave rolling. For some of them, it was easy, and for others, it was a bit harder.
在那天結束時,25 位參與的人裡面有 24 位讓那份慷慨持續滾動。對他們部份人來說,那很簡單,而對其他人來說,那有點困難。

I'm feeling... I'm feeling, like, indifferent because I'm like, "Yo, I don't know them," but I'd be pissed if, like, someone's like, "Okay, bye."
我覺得...我覺得滿冷漠的,因為我覺得,「嘿,我又不認識他們」,但我又會很生氣,如果有人這樣說:「好吧,掰。」

It's just money. Like, you don't... How many times you get to play with puppies? This, like, makes someone's week, you know?
那就只是錢。應該說,你並不會...你有多少可以跟狗狗玩的機會?這種機會能讓人一週都很開心,你懂嗎?

Everybody deserves to have a little happiness in their day. I mean, like, this is... Like, look at this face. Would this not, like, brighten your day?
每個人在一天裡都應得一點開心的事情。我是說,這是...應該說,看看這張臉。這難道不會照亮你的一天嗎?

This just brought me joy, and I wouldn't wanna take that away from someone else, because money is money.
這為我帶來了歡樂,而我不會想把這機會從其他人身邊奪走,因為錢就只是錢。

Did hearing that somebody else decided to give up their 50 dollars and let you guys come in—did that have an effect on your decision at all?
聽到別人決定放棄他們的 50 塊美金,並且讓你們大家進來--那對你們的決定有絲毫影響嗎?

It, definitely for me, made me more likely to give the money back just because I was, like, "Oh, other people chose to be that selfless, so I'm gonna follow suit."
對我來說,肯定是讓我更容易想把這筆錢還回去,因為我想說:「噢,其他人選擇如此無私,那我也要這麼做。」

It's kind of like a pay-it-forward; kindness begets kindness.
這有點像是把愛傳下去;善心會帶來善心。

The people before me made this decision to let me play with them, and I had a fun time with them; I think it's worth it to pass that on.
排在我前面的人做了這個決定,讓我跟牠們玩,而我跟牠們也玩得很愉快;我覺得這很值得繼續傳遞下去。

You put good vibes into the world, you get good vibes back, I think.
你為世界注入好的氣氛,你也會得到好的氣氛,我是這麼想的。

Because everyone wants to jump on board when they see what's going on, and then it can become something much bigger than the original person thought.
因為所有人都會想要參與,當他們了解情況的時候,而這會演變成一個,比起原先那個人以為的還要大的效應。

It doesn't take much to put people in a giving mood—just a little generosity from the get-go, a little nudge of kindness—and that "generosity snowball" starts rolling, picking up speed, and growing. If you see kindness and generosity in the world, don't be afraid to act on it, and if you don't see it, start it—because others will see what you do and pass it on.
想讓人大方給予,並不需要什麼條件--只要在開頭的地方有一些慷慨、為善心行為推一把--而那「善心雪球」就開始滾動、加速,然後越變越大。如果你在世界上看到善心或慷慨的舉動,不要害怕把它表現出來,而如果你沒有看到善心或慷慨舉動,就由你開始吧--因為其他人會看到你所做的事情,然後一起傳遞下去。

  • 「付帳」- Pick Up The Tab

    Ever go to your favorite coffee shop, and when you get to the front to pay, you discover the person before you picked up the tab?
    你是否曾有過這種經驗:你去了最喜歡的咖啡店,而當你走到櫃台要付錢的時候,你發現你前面的那個人已經幫你結完帳了?

  • 「傳遞」- Pass On

    You can either take the 50 dollars (just put it in your pocket; go home) or you can pass on the 50, and if you pass on the additional 50 dollars, the person after you will also get five minutes to play with the puppies.
    你們可以拿走 50 塊美金(就把它收進你的口袋;回家)或是你們可以把這 50 塊傳遞下去,而如果你們把這額外的 50 塊美金傳遞下去,排在你們後面的人也可以有五分鐘來跟狗狗們玩。

  • 「請某人離開」- Show Someone The Door

    If somebody just takes the 50, which they can, then the person who would've gone after them... We just say "Thank you very much for your time," and then we show them the door.
    如果有人就拿了這 50 塊錢美金,他們的確可以這麼做,那麼那位在他們後面的人...我們就只會說:「非常感謝你的時間」,然後我們就帶他們離開。

  • 「接連獲勝」- On A Roll

    Okay, folks. We're on a roll, but how long can we keep it going?
    好的,大夥們。我們接連獲勝,但我們可以讓這份慷慨持續多久呢?

  • 「跟著做」- Follow Suit

    "Oh, other people chose to be that selfless, so I'm gonna follow suit."
    「噢,其他人選擇如此無私,那我也要這麼做。」

  • 「加速」- Pick Up Speed

    It doesn't take much to put people in a giving mood—just a little generosity from the get-go, a little nudge of kindness—and that "generosity snowball" starts rolling, picking up speed, and growing.
    想讓人大方給予,並不需要什麼條件--只要在開頭的地方有一些慷慨、為善心行為推一把--而那「善心雪球」就開始滾動、加速,然後越變越大。

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