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「小漢斯‧霍爾拜因:〈亨利八世的肖像畫〉」- Henry VIII Portrait by Hans Holbein


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So let's play detective and have a look at some of the works at Castle Howard. And see if we can discover some of the stories that they can tell us.
來玩玩偵探遊戲,看看在霍華德城堡的一些作品。看看我們是否可以發現一些它們可以告訴我們的故事。

Most of the picture collection was assembled by three generations of the family in less than a century. And it was probably at a famous country house sale—the Arundel House sale—that the fourth Earl acquired this portrait in about 1720.
大部分的畫作藏品是此家族的三個世代在不到一世紀中所收藏的。這大概正是在一次著名的鄉間別墅拍賣中--阿倫德爾別墅拍賣--第四任伯爵在大約1720年時得到這幅肖像畫。

I expect many of you would recognize the sitter's identity. He was one of the most colorful of the Tudor monarchs. And much of the information we have about him and his courtiers comes from the work of one contemporary artist. The sitter is, of course, King Henry VIII, and was painted by Hans Holbein the Younger in 1542.
我想你們許多人會認出這位主角的身分。他是都鐸王朝最精采的人之一。我們擁有關於他、以及他的廷臣的許多資訊來自於一位當代藝術家的作品。這名主角,當然,是亨利八世,且是由小漢斯‧霍爾拜因在1542年所畫的。

What makes it such a striking image? How do you react as you look into his face, his eyes, and his mouth? He's looking straight at you. I wonder, What is he thinking? What does his expression tell us? If he suddenly spoke, what would he say?
是什麼讓這成為如此突出的畫作?當你看著他的臉龐、他的雙眼、及他的嘴巴時,你如何反應?他正直直地盯著你。我想知道:他正想些什麼?他的表情告訴我們些什麼?如果他突然說話了,他會說什麼?

As I continue to look at the portrait, I'm struck by the King's size and the detail of his richly ornamented costume.
當我繼續看著這幅肖像,我被國王的身材以及他華麗裝飾的服裝細節所打動。

Hans Holbein was born in about 1497 in Augsburg, Southern Germany, the son of a painter. He trained in his father's workshop, and then moved to Bale in Switzerland, where he started on his own successful career. Today he's recognized as one of the greatest portrait painters of all time.
小漢斯‧霍爾拜因在大約1497年時於南德奧格斯堡出生,是一位畫家的兒子。他在他父親的畫室中受訓,然後搬到瑞士的巴塞爾,在那裡他開始了他自己成功的事業。今天他被認為是有史以來最傑出的肖像畫家之一。

Now you may never have been the sitter in a portrait, but I expect you have had the school photographer take your picture. He usually sets up his studio in the school hall, and then makes the picture of every child in the school in a matter of hours. How long do you think it would have taken Holbein with his brushes and paint to make a single portrait?
你可能從未當過肖像畫裡的主角,但我想你應該曾經讓學校的攝影師拍過你的照片。他通常將畫室設在校內大廳,接著在大約幾小時內幫每個學校裡的孩子畫肖像。你覺得霍爾拜因用他的筆刷和顏料要花多少時間來畫一幅肖像?

He paints it with such accuracy his pictures have a photographic quality, and he's given us an important record of the members of the Tudor court.
他帶著如此的精確度作畫,因此他的畫作都帶著攝影般的質感,且他帶給我們都鐸王朝成員的重要記錄。

Yet he didn't start his career as a portrait painter. He illustrated books and painted religious pictures. However, holy images became unpopular when changes in attitude and belief occurred during a movement called the Reformation. So Holbein lost his income, and was forced to leave Bale to come to England in search of work.
但是他並不是從肖像畫家開啟他的職業生涯。他為書本繪製插畫,並畫宗教圖像。但是,當態度和信仰的改變在一個稱為宗教改革的運動中發生時,神聖的圖像變得乏人問津。所以霍爾拜因失去了他的收入,且被迫離開巴塞爾,並來到英國找工作。

His first visit to London was spent in the company of the great scholar and statesman, Sir Thomas More. Then after a period back in Switzerland with his wife and family, Holbein returned to England.
他第一次造訪倫敦是在一位傑出的學者及政治家--托馬斯·莫爾爵士的陪同下度過。接著和他的妻子及家人回到瑞士一段時間後,霍爾拜因又回到了英國。

He was made court painter to Henry VIII in 1536. He became the King's chief image maker. And from then on, the painting of portraits became fashionable. He also developed the technique of miniature portraits. But his work for the English court wasn't restricted to portraiture. He also designed jewelry, furniture, and costumes.
他在1536年成為亨利八世的宮廷畫家。他成了國王的主要形象畫家。從那時開始,肖像的畫作變得流行。他同樣也發展出迷你肖像畫的技術。但他為英國宮廷創作的作品並不局限於肖像畫。他同樣也設計珠寶、家具、和服裝。

He died quite suddenly in 1543. It's thought that he probably died of the plague, that terrible disease which killed thousands of people in Britain and across Europe.
他在1543年驟逝。人們認為他大概是死於黑死病,那個在英國及歐洲各處害死數千人的可怕疾病。

Henry VIII was born in Greenwich on the 28 June, 1491—the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Henry had a very spoiled childhood. He even had his own whipping boy, who was punished every time Henry did something wrong. But he was also very well-educated. He spoke many languages, wrote poetry, and knew a great deal about religion. And he also developed great skill in music and sports.
亨利八世在1491年6月28日於格林威治出生--為亨利七世及約克的伊麗莎白之次子。亨利有段非常受到寵溺的童年。他甚至有他自己的代罪羔羊,在每次亨利做錯事時代受懲罰。但他同樣也受到良好教育。他會說數種語言、會寫詩、且非常了解宗教。他同樣也在音樂及運動方面發展絕佳的能力。

He became the prince of Wales following the death of his elder brother, Arthur, and at the same time became engaged to Arthur's wife, Catherine of Aragon. They married when Henry became King in 1509. At that time, Henry was young, handsome, and charming. He had red-gold hair and was over six feet tall.
他在他的哥哥亞瑟死亡後成為威爾斯的王子,同時和亞瑟的妻子阿拉貢的凱瑟琳訂婚。他們在1509年亨利登基時成婚。在那時,亨利年輕、帥氣、又迷人。他有著金紅色的頭髮,且超過六呎(約182公分)高。

However, aided by his ministers Wolsey and Cromwell, his reign is one of ambition abroad and ruthlessness at home.
但是,在他的臣子們沃爾西及康沃爾的協助下,他的統治是野心勃勃於外、冷酷無情於內的一種。

When Henry became King, the country was Catholic, and its religion was controlled by the Pope in Rome. However, when the Pope wouldn't let Henry get divorced, Henry made himself head of the church in England instead, and gave himself the divorce he wanted.
當亨利成為國王,國家是屬於天主教的,其宗教受到羅馬教宗控制。然而,當教宗不讓亨利離婚,亨利反而就讓自己成為英國的教堂領袖,並給他自己他所想要的離婚。

Later, Henry closed all the monasteries and nunneries in England and took all the money from the monks and nuns. He gave the monasteries to his friends as fine houses. This time was called the Reformation that I mentioned earlier.
之後,亨利關閉了所有英國的修道院及修女院,並從修道士跟修女那拿走所有錢。他將修道院當做豪宅送給他的朋友。這段期間就稱作我稍早提到的宗教改革運動。

Anxious that his sons should follow him, Henry VIII is famed for having six wives, and three of the queens had children who became future monarchs—Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth I.
擔心他的兒子應該要跟隨他,亨利八世以有過六任妻子出名,其中三個皇后生下成為未來君主的孩子--愛德華六世、女王瑪麗、還有女王伊莉莎白一世。

Do you know the rhyme for remembering the fate of his wives? Divorced, beheaded, died. Divorced, beheaded, survived. Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon, beheaded Anne Boleyn, and then his third wife Jane Seymour died after giving birth to her son.
你知道要記住他的妻子命運的押韻詩嗎?離婚、斬首、死亡。離婚、斬首、存活。亨利和阿拉貢的凱瑟琳離婚、斬首安妮·博林,接著他的第三任妻子珍·西摩在生下她的兒子後過世。

The King then sent Holbein to foreign courts on the very important task of painting portraits of possible wives for him. The plan was that Henry would choose his next wife from one of these portraits.
國王接著將霍爾拜因送到國外的宮廷進行為他繪製可能妻子人選的肖像這份非常重要的任務。那計畫是亨利會從這些肖像中其中一幅選出他下一任妻子。

In fact, he agreed to marry his fourth wife Anne of Cleves before he'd even seen her, trusting Holbein's portrait of her. When he saw her in the flesh, however, the King was very rude, saying that she looked like a horse. He divorced her soon after.
事實上,他甚至在他看過她之前就同意迎娶他的第四任妻子克里維斯的安妮,相信了霍爾拜因所畫的她的肖像。但是當他看到她本人,國王非常無禮,說她看起來像匹馬。他不久後就休了她。

His fifth wife Catherine Howard—he ordered to be beheaded. And then his last and sixth wife Catherine Parr outlived him, although only by one year.
他的第五任妻子凱瑟琳·霍華德--他下令要斬首。然後他最後一任、也是第六任妻子凱瑟琳·帕爾活得比他久,雖然只有多活一年而已。

When Henry came to the throne, he was considered to be the most handsome sovereign in Europe. But with age and illness, the King's body became abnormally big and disfigured. When Holbein painted this portrait in 1542, it was becoming increasingly difficult to represent the King honestly, but also to present a powerful public image.
當亨利登上王位後,他被認為是歐洲最英俊的君主。但隨著年齡增長和疾病,國王的身軀變得異常腫大、變形。當霍爾拜因在1542年繪製這幅肖像時,那變得越來越難如實描繪出國王、也很難呈現一個強大的公眾形象。

This portrait is painted in oil on wood panel—a common material before the use of canvas became prevalent. Here Holbein has placed the three-quarter-length image of the King in a high and narrow frame. The overall effect is to suggest considerable power and strength—a severe and dominating figure.
這幅肖像畫是以油彩在木畫板上繪製--在畫布的使用普及前很常見的材料。在這裡霍爾拜因將國王四分之三長度的圖像放在一個又長又窄的畫框中。整體的影響是要使人聯想到相當重要的權力和力量--一個嚴格統治的形象。

Henry's features are very sharply drawn. Don't you feel he's staring straight at you? Look at the sharp line of his mouth, his cheeks, his double chin, the tuft of hair beneath his lower lip, his moustache, and then his beard. It was on hearing that Francis I, King of France, had a beard that Henry grew one. Beards went customary in England at that time.
亨利的特色非常鮮明地被描繪出來。你沒有感覺他正直直盯著你嗎?看看他嘴巴、他的臉頰、他的雙下巴、他下唇下方的一戳鬍子、他的八字鬍、然後他的鬍鬚的清晰線條。那正是在聽說法國國王法蘭西斯一世留鬍鬚後,亨利才開始蓄鬍。在那時鬍鬚在英國蔚為風潮。

Francis was Henry's great political and cultural rival. And as Henry's hair was reddish, it was said that he had a beard that look like goat, which must have pleased him.
法蘭西斯是亨利在政治及文化上強大的對手。因為亨利的頭髮是淡紅色的,據說他留著看起來像山羊的鬍鬚,這一定讓他很滿意。

The King is wearing a black hat decorated with pearls and other jewels. The plain, dark background to the portrait shows up the brilliant red of Henry's bell-shaped robe, emphasizing Henry himself and giving impact to the portrait.
國王正戴著以珍珠和其他珠寶裝飾的黑帽。那肖像畫的樸素、黑暗背景凸顯出亨利那鐘形長袍的亮紅色,強調出亨利他自己、並帶給肖像一股衝擊。

In his earlier works, Holbein often surrounded his sitters with objects that indicated their official position, or had some actual or symbolic relevance. In his later works, these objects were replaced by plain backgrounds.
在他早期的作品中,霍爾拜因通常用能夠暗示他們官位的物品圍住他的主角,或是運用些實際或象徵的關聯性。在他後期的作品中,這些物品被樸素的背景所取代。

Henry's robe of silk and velvet material is ornamented with an extremely intricate and detailed pattern in bright gold thread. Hobein skillfully differentiates between the textures of the material, the fur trimming, and the jewelry.
亨利那身絲綢及天鵝絨料子的長袍,以亮金色絲線織成的極為複雜精細圖樣裝飾。霍爾拜因巧妙地分別出那布料、毛皮裝飾、以及珠寶的質感。

Henry wears a large golden bejeweled chain and gold rings. His robe is held shut with large gold and jewel studded fasteners. His sleeves of cloth of gold, slashed over white linen, are also covered with jewels and gold mounds. All his accessories have been carefully studied and painted. Henry is holding gloves in his right hand and with his left, he clasps the top of a walking stick adorned with gold.
亨利戴著一大串寶石裝飾的金色鍊子和金戒指。他的袍子用釘有黃金和珠寶的鈕扣扣上。他的金色布料袖子,在白色的亞麻布上開叉,同樣也以珠寶和金色突紋覆蓋。所有他的飾品都被仔細地研究並繪製。亨利右手正握著手套,而在他的左手,他緊握以黃金裝飾的手杖頂端。

On the brown wood of the stick is a puzzle for you solve. It's painted with the letter H and the number 42. Now what do you think that could mean? Any ideas? I'll leave you thinking about it. We'll come back to it later.
在手杖的棕色木頭上是個要讓你解開的謎題。它畫上字母H還有數字42。現在你覺得那表示些什麼?有任何想法嗎?我會讓你想想看。我們稍後回來。

Now before we leave paintings, do you remember the question I asked you about Henry VIII? The H and the 42. Did you work out what they meant? I bet you thought the H stood for Henry. Well, the most commonly accepted view is that the H is for Holbein, the artist; and the 42 is for 1542, the year it was painted.
現在在我們離開畫作前,記得我剛剛問的有關亨利八世的問題嗎?那H還有42。你有想出它們代表什麼嗎?我猜你會想H是代表亨利。這個嘛,最普遍接受的觀點是H代表霍爾拜因,那位藝術家;而42是代表1542年,它被繪製出的那年。

  • 「開始進行」- Start On

    He trained in his father's workshop, and then moved to Bale in Switzerland, where he started on his own successful career.
    他在他父親的畫室中受訓,然後搬到瑞士的巴塞爾,在那裡他開始了他自己成功的事業。

  • 「建立、設立」- Set Up

    He usually sets up his studio in the school hall, and then makes the picture of every child in the school in a matter of hours.
    他通常將畫室設在校內大廳,接著在大約幾小時內幫每個學校裡的孩子畫肖像。

  • 「差不多、大約」- A Matter Of

    He usually sets up his studio in the school hall, and then makes the picture of every child in the school in a matter of hours.
    他通常將畫室設在校內大廳,接著在大約幾小時內幫每個學校裡的孩子畫肖像。

  • 「在...的陪同下」- In The Company Of

    His first visit to London was spent in the company of the great scholar and statesman, Sir Thomas More.
    他第一次造訪倫敦是在一位傑出的學者及政治家--托馬斯·莫爾爵士的陪同下度過。

  • 「從那時開始」- From Then On

    And from then on, the painting of portraits became fashionable.
    從那時開始,肖像的畫作變得流行。

  • 「代罪羔羊」- Whipping Boy

    Henry had a very spoiled childhood. He even had his own whipping boy, who was punished every time Henry did something wrong.
    亨利有段非常受到寵溺的童年。他甚至有他自己的代罪羔羊,在每次亨利做錯事時代受懲罰。

  • 「本人、親自」- In The Flesh

    When he saw her in the flesh, however, the King was very rude, saying that she looked like a horse. He divorced her soon after.
    但是當他看到她本人,國王非常無禮,說她看起來像匹馬。他不久後就休了她。

  • 「不久後」- Soon After

    When he saw her in the flesh, however, the King was very rude, saying that she looked like a horse. He divorced her soon after.
    但是當他看到她本人,國王非常無禮,說她看起來像匹馬。他不久後就休了她。

  • 「代表、象徵」- Stand For

    I bet you thought the H stood for Henry.
    我猜你會想H是代表亨利。

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