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希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
學習心得分享

寫作最怕囉哩囉嗦--『分詞構句』是你的好朋友!

今天要來教大家都很頭痛的大魔王:「分詞構句」!分詞構句看起來好像很難懂,但只要了解概念,就不會再搞錯囉!

分詞構句

分詞構句的主要功能,就是「精簡句子」。當兩個句子的主詞相同,而你不想重複兩次時,就能用分詞構句來連接兩個句子。分詞構句會造成的改變是:省略兩句中「表原因、條件、先發生的事情」那句的主詞,省略連接詞,動詞做變化。來看看下列兩種分詞構句。

主詞主動進行動作

若省略的主詞是「主動」進行動作,合併成分詞構句後,省略主詞那句的動詞就要改成「現在分詞」形式。以下舉幾個例子:

◎ I felt ashamed. + I burst into tears in class.
→ 若用連接詞連接兩句子,可以說:I burst into tears in class because I felt ashamed.
→ 若要改成分詞構句,就先去掉連接詞 because,省略相同的主詞 I, 動詞 felt 改成現在分詞形式:

Feeling ashamed, I burst into tears in class.
(感到很羞愧,我在課堂上大哭。)

◎ Sandy didn't know when John would come. + Sandy waited for two hours.
→ 若用連接詞連接兩句子,可以說:Sandy waited for two hours since Sandy didn't know when John would come.
→ 若要改成分詞構句,就先去掉連接詞 since,省略相同的主詞 Sandy, 動詞 know 改成現在分詞形式:

Not knowing when John would come, Sandy waited for two hours.
(不知道 John 什麼時候會到,Sandy 等了兩個小時。)

※ 小提醒:若原句子為否定句,省略時助動詞也一併省略,只需保留 not。

 

主詞被動進行動作

若省略的主詞是「被動」進行動作,合併成分詞構句後,省略主詞那句的動詞就要改成「過去分詞」形式。以下舉幾個例子:

◎ The musicians stood up. + The musicians were surrounded by applause.
→ 若用連接詞連接兩句子,可以說:The musicians stood up while the musicians were surrounded by applause.
→ 若要改成分詞構句,就先去掉連接詞 while,省略相同的主詞 the musicians,被動式 were surrounded 保留過去分詞:

Surrounded by applause, the musicians stood up.
(被掌聲圍繞,音樂家們站起身來。)

◎ The people were surprised by the government’s decision. + The people knew they had to do something.
→ 若用連接詞連接兩句子,可以說:The people were surprised by the government’s decision, so the people knew they had to do something.
→ 若要改成分詞構句,就先去掉連接詞 so,省略相同的主詞 the people,動詞用過去分詞形式 surprised:

Surprised by the government’s decision, the people knew they had to do something.
(驚訝於政府的決策,民眾知道他們必須有所動作。)