Are you tense about tense? Well, don't be. In this session's Masterclass, I'll let you into a little secret of all English tenses—it's all about character. After this.
BBC Masterclass: Aspect
Okay, guys. In this Masterclass, we're gonna get a little bit theoretical, okay? So try and hold on. Tenses in English are made up of two things: a time and an aspect. Now, almost all languages and cultures recognize three times: past, present, and future.
But what about an aspect? Hmm. An aspect is the character of a verb. It adds extra information to the verb's meaning and reflects the perception of the speaker. Now, depending on who you talk to, there are between two and four aspects, but I like to say three. They are simple, continuous, and perfect. And all three of them can be used in past, present, and future.
The Simple Aspect
The simple aspect is actually not an aspect at all. It does not modify the verb in terms of its meaning, only in terms of its form. And this is because, in all cases, the unmodified verb is enough to express exactly the meaning that speaker wants to say at the time of speaking. They broadly fall into three categories. We have the long-term general truth. For example, "I like studying English." We have the instantaneous. For example, "I now pronounce you man and wife." And we have the habitual. For example, "I woke up every day at 6 a.m. last year."
簡單式其實根本不算是一種狀態。它不會就意思上面來修飾動詞，只會以型態方面修飾。而這是因為，在所有情況下，未經修飾的動詞已經能充分表達講者說話當下想表達的確切意思。大概會有三種種類。我們有「長期一般性的事實」。例如：「I like studying English（我喜歡讀英文）」。我們有「瞬間的」。例如：「I now pronounce you man and wife（我現在宣布你們為夫妻）」。我們還有「習慣性」。例如：「I woke up every day at 6 a.m. last year（我去年每天早上六點起床）」。
The Continuous Aspect
The continuous aspect is formed with some sort of "be" plus "verb-ing." The focus of this aspect is primarily upon the duration of an event. All progressive forms contain characteristics of temporariness, unfinishedness, or in "progressness." The progressive aspect tends to disregard the end of an action and view the event from the center. So, an action might be happening at the moment of speaking, for example, "I'm making a video right now"; or around a certain time, for example, "Before we met, I was living in Scotland"; or simultaneously when another action occurs, for example, "When you get home, I'll be working in the office."
進行式是由不同形態的「be 動詞」加上「動詞-ing」組成的。這種狀態的重點主要是在事件的持續時間上。所有進行的型態包含暫時性、未完成性或「進行性」的特質。進行式狀態比較會忽視動作的結束，並從中間看一個事件。所以說，某個動作可能發生在說話的當下，例如：「I'm making a video right now（我現在正在拍一部影片）」；或大約在一個特定時間，例如：「Before we met, I was living in Scotland（我們認識前，我住在蘇格蘭）」；或另一件動作發生的同時，例如：「When you get home, I'll be working in the office（你到家的時候，我會還在辦公室工作）」。
The Perfect Aspect
The perfect aspect is formed with some version of "have" plus the "past participle." Perfect aspects focus on bridging two times together and connecting events between one time and another, often through relevancy. An event in the past might be relevant to the present moment. An event in the future could be connected in some way to the present or the past. Perfect verb phrases can describe states, for example, "I've loved you since I first met you"; actions, for example, "I will have gone to the gym by the time you get home"; and habits, for example, "My father had started work at 9 o'clock every day for the last 20 years."
完成式是由不同形態的「have」加上「過去分詞」組成的。完成式重點在將兩個時間連接在一起，並將一個時間點與另一個時間的事件連接起來，通常是透過關聯性銜接。過去的事件可能會和現在的時刻相關。未來的事件可能會和現在或過去在某方面有所連結。完成式動詞片語可以描述狀態，例如：「I've loved you since I first met you（我第一次見到你時就愛上你了）」；動作，例如：「I will have gone to the gym by the time you get home（你回家的時候我會已經在健身房了）」；還有習慣，例如：「My father had started work at 9 o'clock every day for the last 20 years（我爸爸過去二十年都是每天九點開始工作）」。
And of course, we can link aspects to create perfect continuous verb phrases. These combine the forms of their two base aspects. For example, "have" plus "been" plus "verb-ing." And they combine their meanings. So we can create verb phrases which focus on actions or events with duration with relevancy to more than one time period.
Did you get it? Of course you got it. Now, for more information, go to our website at bbclearningenglish.com. I've been Dan; you've been fantastic. And I'll see you next time, guys. Remember, don't get tense. It's all about character.
你懂了嗎？當然你懂了。那想知道更多資訊的話，可以到我們的網站 bbclearningenglish.com。我是 Dan；你們超棒的。大家，我們下次見。記得喔，不要變得很緊繃。一切都跟特性有關。
- 「就某方面來說」- In Terms Of
It does not modify the verb in terms of its meaning, only in terms of its form.