What is the present perfect? The present perfect is unfinished time. What is unfinished time? Unfinished time is an unbroken connection between the past and the present.
A good way to understand it is to compare unfinished time with finished time. With finished time, we use the past simple: "I went to Paris last year." Last year is finished time. But look at this sentence: "I have been to Paris twice." Here the context is unfinished time. What is the unfinished time? Here you're talking about experiences in your life. Your life is unfinished time, so we use the present perfect.
When you are dead and you are spoken about at your funeral, they will say, "He loved France. He visited Paris many times"—finished time. Game over.
Unfinished time can be clearly seen in this present perfect sentence: "I have lived in Paris for five years." You moved to Paris five years ago, and you still live there now—this is unfinished time. Compare it with finished time: "I lived in Paris for five years before moving back home to Moscow." You lived in Paris for five years, but you don't live there now.
So when you find yourself asking, "What is the present perfect?" remember that the present perfect is unfinished time.