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「簡說美國總統大選」- Electing a US President in Plain English


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Every four years, Americans who are 18 or older have a big responsibility. Our votes decide who becomes the President of the United States. Unfortunately, the U.S. election system isn't that simple. This is Electing a U.S. President in Plain English.
每四年,十八歲以上的美國人就有個重大的責任。我們的選票決定誰會成為美國總統。不幸的是,美國選舉系統不是那麼的簡單。這裡是「簡說美國總統大選」。

It's easy to imagine every U.S. citizen's vote being counted together on Election Day, but this is not the case. U.S. elections are not decided by the total or popular vote, but individual states. Let me explain.
很容易聯想到的是在大選之日,每位美國公民的選票被集中起來開票,但不是這樣子的。美國選舉不是由總票數或大眾選票決定,而是由每一個州來決定。讓我為你解釋。

It starts with your vote. On Election Day, you'll vote for president and their vice president. You get one choice. Then, all the votes in your state are counted. The candidate with the most statewide votes becomes the candidate your state supports for president. This happens across the country until each state has selected their candidate.
從你投票開始。在大選之日,你將投票選出總統和他們的副手。你只能選一個。然後,你的州所有票數被加以計算。州內得票數最高的候選人成為你的州所支持的總統候選人。全國都是這樣,直到每個州都選出它們的候選人。

We end up with most of the 50 states and the District of Columbia
voting to support one candidate each. But there's a problem. We can't elect a president by just counting up the choices of these states; U.S. states are different.
結果我們得到的是大部分的五十州加上哥倫比亞特區,各投票支持一位候選人。但有個問題。我們不能只是算一算這些州的選票就選出總統。美國的州各有不同。

Consider this: California has about 36 million people; Kansas has less than three million. We need a way for California's choice to have more influence on the election because the state has more people. The question becomes: How do we make sure each state has the right amount of influence on the election?
想想看:加州有大約三千六百萬人;堪薩斯州只有不到三百萬人。我們需要有個方法,讓加州的抉擇對大選更有影響力,因為這一州人口較多。問題變成:我們要如何確保每個州對選舉擁有適切的大選影響力?

Well, we need a way to account for the population of each state.
這個嘛,我們需要一個能夠說明每個州的人口之影響力的方法。

As an example, let's consider my home state of North Carolina. Like every state, it is divided up into congressional districts that are based on population. North Carolina has 13 districts, California has 53, and Kansas has four. When it comes to a state's influence on the election, the number of districts matters most. More population equals more districts equals more influence.
舉例來說,看看我的家鄉北卡羅萊納州吧。就像每個州一樣,它以人口數為基礎來劃分為不同的眾議員選區。北卡羅萊納州有十三個區,加州有五十三個區,而堪薩斯州有四個區。談到一個州對大選的影響力,區的數量影響最大了。較多的人口等同於較多的區也就等於較大的影響力。

The influence a state has in the election is measured by the number of electors. This number comes from the number of districts in a state plus the number of U.S. senators, which is always two. North Carolina has 15 electors, while California has 55.
一個州在大選所擁有的影響力是用「總統選舉人票數」來衡量的。這數字是從州內眾議員選區的總和加上美國參議員數而來,參議員數目都是兩位。北卡羅萊納州有十五張總統選舉人票,而加州有五十五張總統選舉人票。

When a candidate wins the voting in a state, they win that state's number of electors. That's why big, populous states can be so important to candidates. Their electors add up quickly. And the number of electors is what really matters.
當一位候選人在州內贏得選舉,他們就贏得那一州的總統選舉人票數。那就是為何大的、人口眾多的州對候選人來說是非常重要的。它們的總統選舉人票數會很快地增加。而總統選舉人票數才真正是關係重大。

Here's why:
這裡是為什麼:

If you add up the electors of all 50 states and the District of Columbia, there are 538 in total. The candidates' goal on Election Day is to win the majority of 538, or 270 electors. Once a candidate wins enough states to reach the 270 majority, they have won the election and become the President-elect. Yay!
如果你把全部五十州和哥倫比亞特區的總統選舉人票數加起來,總共有五百三十八張票。在選舉日,候選人的目標是要贏得五百三十八票中的大多數,也就是說兩百七十票。一旦一位候選人贏得足夠的州數,達到兩百七十票的多數,他們就已經贏得選舉,成為總統當選人。耶!

So, let's recap. Your vote helps your state choose a single candidate. That candidate receives all the electors from your state. The candidate who can win enough states, to reach 270 total electors, wins the national election and becomes the President-elect.
所以,讓我們來重述一下要點。你的選票幫助你的州選出一位候選人。那位候選人接收你州所有的總統選舉人票。能夠贏得足夠州數,達到總共兩百七十張總統選舉人票數的候選人贏得全國大選並成為總統當選人。

Then, on the following January 20, the President-elect is sworn in as the next President of the United States. And it all starts with your vote. Make it count!
然後,在次年一月二十日,總統當選人宣誓就職成為下一任美國總統。而這一切都是從你的投票開始的。讓你的選票說話吧!

I'm Lee LeFever, and this has been Electing a U.S President in Plain English on the Common Craft Show.
我是 Lee Lefever,而這是 Common Craft Show 的「簡說美國總統大選」。

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