下載App 希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
下載App 希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
IE版本不足
你的 IE 瀏覽器太舊了 更新 IE 瀏覽器或點選連結下載 Google Chrome 瀏覽器 前往下載

免費註冊
! 這組帳號已經註冊過了
Email 帳號
密碼請填入 6 位數以上密碼
已經有帳號了?
忘記密碼
! 這組帳號已經註冊過了
您的 Email
請輸入您註冊時填寫的 Email,
我們將會寄送設定新密碼的連結給您。
寄信了!請到信箱打開密碼連結信
密碼信已寄至
沒有收到信嗎? 點這裡重寄一次
如果您尚未收到信,請前往垃圾郵件查看,謝謝!

恭喜您註冊成功!

查看會員功能

註冊未完成

《HOPE English 希平方》服務條款關於個人資料收集與使用之規定

隱私權政策
上次更新日期:2014-12-30

希平方 為一英文學習平台,我們每天固定上傳優質且豐富的影片內容,讓您不但能以有趣的方式學習英文,還能增加內涵,豐富知識。我們非常注重您的隱私,以下說明為當您使用我們平台時,我們如何收集、使用、揭露、轉移及儲存你的資料。請您花一些時間熟讀我們的隱私權做法,我們歡迎您的任何疑問或意見,提供我們將產品、服務、內容、廣告做得更好。

本政策涵蓋的內容包括:希平方 如何處理蒐集或收到的個人資料。
本隱私權保護政策只適用於: 希平方 平台,不適用於非 希平方 平台所有或控制的公司,也不適用於非 希平方 僱用或管理之人。

個人資料的收集與使用
當您註冊 希平方 平台時,我們會詢問您姓名、電子郵件、出生日期、職位、行業及個人興趣等資料。在您註冊完 希平方 帳號並登入我們的服務後,我們就能辨認您的身分,讓您使用更完整的服務,或參加相關宣傳、優惠及贈獎活動。希平方 也可能從商業夥伴或其他公司處取得您的個人資料,並將這些資料與 希平方 所擁有的您的個人資料相結合。

我們所收集的個人資料, 將用於通知您有關 希平方 最新產品公告、軟體更新,以及即將發生的事件,也可用以協助改進我們的服務。

我們也可能使用個人資料為內部用途。例如:稽核、資料分析、研究等,以改進 希平方公司 產品、服務及客戶溝通。

瀏覽資料的收集與使用
希平方 自動接收並記錄您電腦和瀏覽器上的資料,包括 IP 位址、希平方 cookie 中的資料、軟體和硬體屬性以及您瀏覽的網頁紀錄。

隱私權政策修訂
我們會不定時修正與變更《隱私權政策》,不會在未經您明確同意的情況下,縮減本《隱私權政策》賦予您的權利。隱私權政策變更時一律會在本頁發佈;如果屬於重大變更,我們會提供更明顯的通知 (包括某些服務會以電子郵件通知隱私權政策的變更)。我們還會將本《隱私權政策》的舊版加以封存,方便您回顧。

服務條款
歡迎您加入看 ”希平方”
上次更新日期:2013-09-09

歡迎您加入看 ”希平方”
感謝您使用我們的產品和服務(以下簡稱「本服務」),本服務是由 希平方 所提供。
本服務條款訂立的目的,是為了保護會員以及所有使用者(以下稱會員)的權益,並構成會員與本服務提供者之間的契約,在使用者完成註冊手續前,應詳細閱讀本服務條款之全部條文,一旦您按下「註冊」按鈕,即表示您已知悉、並完全同意本服務條款的所有約定。如您是法律上之無行為能力人或限制行為能力人(如未滿二十歲之未成年人),則您在加入會員前,請將本服務條款交由您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)閱讀,並得到其同意,您才可註冊及使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務。當您開始使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務時,則表示您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)已經閱讀、了解並同意本服務條款。 我們可能會修改本條款或適用於本服務之任何額外條款,以(例如)反映法律之變更或本服務之變動。您應定期查閱本條款內容。這些條款如有修訂,我們會在本網頁發佈通知。變更不會回溯適用,並將於公布變更起十四天或更長時間後方始生效。不過,針對本服務新功能的變更,或基於法律理由而為之變更,將立即生效。如果您不同意本服務之修訂條款,則請停止使用該本服務。

第三人網站的連結 本服務或協力廠商可能會提供連結至其他網站或網路資源的連結。您可能會因此連結至其他業者經營的網站,但不表示希平方與該等業者有任何關係。其他業者經營的網站均由各該業者自行負責,不屬希平方控制及負責範圍之內。

兒童及青少年之保護 兒童及青少年上網已經成為無可避免之趨勢,使用網際網路獲取知識更可以培養子女的成熟度與競爭能力。然而網路上的確存有不適宜兒童及青少年接受的訊息,例如色情與暴力的訊息,兒童及青少年有可能因此受到心靈與肉體上的傷害。因此,為確保兒童及青少年使用網路的安全,並避免隱私權受到侵犯,家長(或監護人)應先檢閱各該網站是否有保護個人資料的「隱私權政策」,再決定是否同意提出相關的個人資料;並應持續叮嚀兒童及青少年不可洩漏自己或家人的任何資料(包括姓名、地址、電話、電子郵件信箱、照片、信用卡號等)給任何人。

為了維護 希平方 網站安全,我們需要您的協助:

您承諾絕不為任何非法目的或以任何非法方式使用本服務,並承諾遵守中華民國相關法規及一切使用網際網路之國際慣例。您若係中華民國以外之使用者,並同意遵守所屬國家或地域之法令。您同意並保證不得利用本服務從事侵害他人權益或違法之行為,包括但不限於:
A. 侵害他人名譽、隱私權、營業秘密、商標權、著作權、專利權、其他智慧財產權及其他權利;
B. 違反依法律或契約所應負之保密義務;
C. 冒用他人名義使用本服務;
D. 上載、張貼、傳輸或散佈任何含有電腦病毒或任何對電腦軟、硬體產生中斷、破壞或限制功能之程式碼之資料;
E. 干擾或中斷本服務或伺服器或連結本服務之網路,或不遵守連結至本服務之相關需求、程序、政策或規則等,包括但不限於:使用任何設備、軟體或刻意規避看 希平方 - 看 YouTube 學英文 之排除自動搜尋之標頭 (robot exclusion headers);

服務中斷或暫停
本公司將以合理之方式及技術,維護會員服務之正常運作,但有時仍會有無法預期的因素導致服務中斷或故障等現象,可能將造成您使用上的不便、資料喪失、錯誤、遭人篡改或其他經濟上損失等情形。建議您於使用本服務時宜自行採取防護措施。 希平方 對於您因使用(或無法使用)本服務而造成的損害,除故意或重大過失外,不負任何賠償責任。

版權宣告
上次更新日期:2013-09-16

希平方 內所有資料之著作權、所有權與智慧財產權,包括翻譯內容、程式與軟體均為 希平方 所有,須經希平方同意合法才得以使用。
希平方歡迎你分享網站連結、單字、片語、佳句,使用時須標明出處,並遵守下列原則:

  • 禁止用於獲取個人或團體利益,或從事未經 希平方 事前授權的商業行為
  • 禁止用於政黨或政治宣傳,或暗示有支持某位候選人
  • 禁止用於非希平方認可的產品或政策建議
  • 禁止公佈或傳送任何誹謗、侮辱、具威脅性、攻擊性、不雅、猥褻、不實、色情、暴力、違反公共秩序或善良風俗或其他不法之文字、圖片或任何形式的檔案
  • 禁止侵害或毀損希平方或他人名譽、隱私權、營業秘密、商標權、著作權、專利權、其他智慧財產權及其他權利、違反法律或契約所應付支保密義務
  • 嚴禁謊稱希平方辦公室、職員、代理人或發言人的言論背書,或作為募款的用途

網站連結
歡迎您分享 希平方 網站連結,與您的朋友一起學習英文。

抱歉傳送失敗!

不明原因問題造成傳送失敗,請儘速與我們聯繫!
希平方 x ICRT

「Dan Gibson:如何打造人工 DNA 並透過網路傳送」- How to Build Synthetic DNA and Send It Across the Internet


框選或點兩下字幕可以直接查字典喔!

Alright, let me tell you about building synthetic cells and printing life. But first, let me tell you a quick story. On March 31, 2013, my team and I received an email from an international health organization, alerting us that two men died in China shortly after contracting the H7N9 bird flu. There were fears of a global pandemic as the virus started rapidly moving across China. Although methods existed to produce a flu vaccine and stop the disease from spreading, at best, it would not be available for at least six months. This is because a slow, antiquated flu vaccine manufacturing process developed over 70 years ago was the only option.

The virus would need to be isolated from infected patients, packaged up and then sent to a facility where scientists would inject the virus into chicken eggs, and incubate those chicken eggs for several weeks in order to prepare the virus for the start of a multistep, multimonth flu vaccine manufacturing process. My team and I received this email because we had just invented a biological printer, which would allow for the flu vaccine instructions to be instantly downloaded from the internet and printed. Drastically speeding up the way in which flu vaccines are made, and potentially saving thousands of lives.

The biological printer leverages our ability to read and write DNA and starts to bring into focus what we like to call biological teleportation. I am a biologist and an engineer who builds stuff out of DNA. Believe it or not, one of my favorite things to do is to take DNA apart and put it back together so that I can understand better how it works. I can edit and program DNA to do things, just like coders programing a computer. But my apps are different. They create life. Self-replicating living cells and things like vaccines and therapeutics that work in ways that were previously impossible.

Here's National Medal of Science recipient Craig Venter and Nobel laureate Ham Smith. These two guys shared a similar vision. That vision was, because all of the functions and characteristics of all biological entities, including viruses and living cells, are written into the code of DNA, if one can read and write that code of DNA, then they can be reconstructed in a distant location. This is what we mean by biological teleportation. To prove out this vision, Craig and Ham set a goal of creating, for the first time, a synthetic cell, starting from DNA code in the computer. I mean, come on, as a scientist looking for a job, doing cutting-edge research, it doesn't get any better than this.

OK, a genome is a complete set of DNA within an organism. Following the Human Genome Project in 2003, which was an international effort to identify the complete genetic blueprint of a human being, a genomics revolution happened. Scientists started mastering the techniques for reading DNA. In order to determine the order of the As, Cs, Ts and Gs within an organism. But my job was far different. I needed to master the techniques for writing DNA. Like an author of a book, this started out as writing short sentences, or sequences of DNA code, but this soon turned into writing paragraphs and then full-on novels of DNA code, to make important biological instructions for proteins and living cells. Living cells are nature's most efficient machines at making new products, accounting for the production of 25 percent of the total pharmaceutical market, which is billions of dollars.

We knew that writing DNA would drive this bioeconomy even more, once cells could be programmed just like computers. We also knew that writing DNA would enable biological teleportation...the printing of defined, biological material, starting from DNA code. As a step toward bringing these promises to fruition, our team set out to create, for the first time, a synthetic bacterial cell, starting from DNA code in the computer. Synthetic DNA is a commodity. You can order very short pieces of DNA from a number of companies, and they will start from these four bottles of chemicals that make up DNA, G, A, T and C, and they will build those very short pieces of DNA for you.

Over the past 15 years or so, my teams have been developing the technology for stitching together those short pieces of DNA into complete bacterial genomes. The largest genome that we constructed contained over one million letters. Which is more than twice the size of your average novel, and we had to put every single one of those letters in the correct order, without a single typo. We were able to accomplish this by developing a procedure that I tried to call the "one-step isothermal in vitro recombination method."

But, surprisingly, the science community didn't like this technically accurate name and decided to call it Gibson Assembly. Gibson Assembly is now the gold standard tool, used in laboratories around the world for building short and long pieces of DNA.

Once we chemically synthesized the complete bacterial genome, our next challenge was to find a way to convert it into a free-living, self-replicating cell. Our approach was to think of the genome as the operating system of the cell, with the cell containing the hardware necessary to boot up the genome. Through a lot of trial and error, we developed a procedure where we could reprogram cells and even convert one bacterial species into another, by replacing the genome of one cell with that of another. This genome transplantation technology then paved the way for the booting-up of genomes written by scientists and not by Mother Nature. In 2010, all of the technologies that we had been developing for reading and writing DNA all came together when we announced the creation of the first synthetic cell, which of course, we called Synthia.

Ever since the first bacterial genome was sequenced, back in 1995, thousands more whole bacterial genomes have been sequenced and stored in computer databases. Our synthetic cell work was the proof of concept that we could reverse this process: pull a complete bacterial genome sequence out of the computer and convert that information into a free-living, self-replicating cell, with all of the expected characteristics of the species that we constructed.

Now I can understand why there may be concerns about the safety of this level of genetic manipulation. While the technology has the potential for great societal benefit, it also has the potential for doing harm. With this in mind, even before carrying out the very first experiment, our team started to work with the public and the government to find solutions together to responsibly develop and regulate this new technology. One of the outcomes from those discussions was to screen every customer and every customer's DNA synthesis orders, to make sure that pathogens or toxins are not being made by bad guys, or accidentally by scientists. All suspicious orders are reported to the FBI and other relevant law-enforcement agencies.

Synthetic cell technologies will power the next industrial revolution and transform industries and economies in ways that address global sustainability challenges. The possibilities are endless. I mean, you can think of clothes constructed form renewable biobased sources, cars running on biofuel from engineered microbes, plastics made from biodegradable polymers and customized therapies, printed at a patient's bedside. The massive efforts to create synthetic cells have made us world leaders at writing DNA. Throughout the process, we found ways to write DNA faster, more accurately and more reliably.

Because of the robustness of these technologies, we found that we could readily automate the processes and move the laboratory workflows out of the scientist's hands and onto a machine. In 2013, we built the first DNA printer. We call it the BioXp. And it has been absolutely essential in writing DNA across a number of applications my team and researchers around the world are working on.

It was shortly after we built the BioXp that we received that email about the H7N9 bird flu scare in China. A team of Chinese scientists had already isolated the virus, sequenced its DNA and uploaded the DNA sequence to the internet. At the request of the US government, we downloaded the DNA sequence and in less than 12 hours, we printed it on the BioXp. Our collaborators at Novartis then quickly started turning that synthetic DNA into a flu vaccine. Meanwhile, the CDC, using technology dating back to the 1940s, was still waiting for the virus to arrive from China so that they could begin their egg-based approach. For the first time, we had a flu vaccine developed ahead of time for a new and potentially dangerous strain, and the US government ordered a stockpile.

This was when I began to appreciate, more than ever, the power of biological teleportation.

Naturally, with this in mind, we started to build a biological teleporter. We call it the DBC. That's short for digital-to-biological converter. Unlike the BioXp, which starts from pre-manufactured short pieces of DNA, the DBC starts from digitized DNA code and converts that DNA code into biological entities, such as DNA, RNA, proteins or even viruses. You can think of the BioXp as a DVD player, requiring a physical DVD to be inserted, whereas the DBC is Netflix. To build the DBC, my team of scientists worked with software and instrumentation engineers to collapse multiple laboratory workflows, all in a single box. This included software algorithms to predict what DNA to build, chemistry to link the G, A, T and C building blocks of DNA into short pieces, Gibson Assembly to stitch together those short pieces into much longer ones, and biology to convert the DNA into other biological entities, such as proteins.

This is the prototype. Although it wasn't pretty, it was effective. It made therapeutic drugs and vaccines. And laboratory workflows that once took weeks or months could now be carried out in just one to two days. And that's all without any human intervention and simply activated by the receipt of an email which could be sent from anywhere in the world. We like to compare the DBC to fax machines. But whereas fax machines received images and documents, the DBC receives biological materials. Now, consider how fax machines have evolved. The prototype of the 1840s is unrecognizable, compared with the fax machines of today. In the 1980s, most people still didn't know what a fax machine was, and if they did, it was difficult for them to grasp the concept of instantly reproducing an image on the other side of the world. But nowadays, everything that a fax machine does is integrated on our smart phones, and of course, we take this rapid exchange of digital information for granted.

Here's what our DBC looks like today. We imagine the DBC evolving in similar ways as fax machines have. We're working to reduce the size of the instrument, and we're working to make the underlying technology more reliable, cheaper, faster and more accurate. Accuracy is extremely important when synthesizing DNA, because a single change to a DNA letter could mean the difference between a medicine working or not or synthetic cell being alive or dead.

The DBC will be useful for the distributed manufacturing of medicine starting from DNA. Every hospital in the world could use a DBC for printing personalized medicines for a patient at their bedside. I can even imagine a day when it's routine for people to have a DBC to connect to their home computer or smart phone as a means to download their prescriptions, such as insulin or antibody therapies. The DBC will also be valuable when placed in strategic areas around the world, for rapid response to disease outbreaks. For example, the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia could send flu vaccine instructions to a DBC on the other side of the world, where the flu vaccine is manufactured right on the front lines. That flu vaccine could even be specifically tailored to the flu strain that's circulating in that local area. Sending vaccines around in a digital file, rather than stockpiling those same vaccines and shipping them out, promises to save thousands of lives.

Of course, the applications go as far as the imagination goes. It's not hard to imagine placing a DBC on another planet. Scientists on Earth could then send the digital instructions to that DBC to make new medicines or to make synthetic organisms that produce oxygen, food, fuel or building materials, as a means for making the planet more habitable for humans.

With digital information traveling at the speed of light, it would only take minutes to send those digital instructions from Earth to Mars, but it would take months to physically deliver those same samples on a spacecraft. But for now, I would be satisfied beaming new medicines across the globe, fully automated and on demand, saving lives from emerging infectious diseases and printing personalized cancer medicines for those who don't have time to wait.

Thank you.

播放本句

登入使用學習功能

使用Email登入

HOPE English 播放器使用小提示

  • 功能簡介

    單句重覆、上一句、下一句:顧名思義,以句子為單位重覆播放,單句重覆鍵顯示橘色時為重覆播放狀態;顯示灰色時為正常播放狀態。按上一句鍵、下一句鍵時就會自動重覆播放該句。
    收錄佳句:點擊可增減想收藏的句子。

    中、英文字幕開關:中、英文字幕按鍵為綠色為開啟,灰色為關閉。鼓勵大家搞懂每一句的內容以後,關上字幕聽聽看,會發現自己好像在聽中文說故事一樣,會很有成就感喔!
    收錄單字:用滑鼠框選英文單字可以收藏不會的單字。
  • 分享
    如果您覺得本篇短片很有趣或很喜歡,在短片結束時有分享連結,可以分享給朋友一同欣賞,一起看YouTube學英文!

    或是您有收錄很優秀的句子時,也可以分享佳句給大家,一同看佳句學英文!