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《HOPE English 希平方》服務條款關於個人資料收集與使用之規定

隱私權政策
上次更新日期:2014-12-30

希平方 為一英文學習平台,我們每天固定上傳優質且豐富的影片內容,讓您不但能以有趣的方式學習英文,還能增加內涵,豐富知識。我們非常注重您的隱私,以下說明為當您使用我們平台時,我們如何收集、使用、揭露、轉移及儲存你的資料。請您花一些時間熟讀我們的隱私權做法,我們歡迎您的任何疑問或意見,提供我們將產品、服務、內容、廣告做得更好。

本政策涵蓋的內容包括:希平方 如何處理蒐集或收到的個人資料。
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我們會不定時修正與變更《隱私權政策》,不會在未經您明確同意的情況下,縮減本《隱私權政策》賦予您的權利。隱私權政策變更時一律會在本頁發佈;如果屬於重大變更,我們會提供更明顯的通知 (包括某些服務會以電子郵件通知隱私權政策的變更)。我們還會將本《隱私權政策》的舊版加以封存,方便您回顧。

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上次更新日期:2013-09-09

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兒童及青少年之保護 兒童及青少年上網已經成為無可避免之趨勢,使用網際網路獲取知識更可以培養子女的成熟度與競爭能力。然而網路上的確存有不適宜兒童及青少年接受的訊息,例如色情與暴力的訊息,兒童及青少年有可能因此受到心靈與肉體上的傷害。因此,為確保兒童及青少年使用網路的安全,並避免隱私權受到侵犯,家長(或監護人)應先檢閱各該網站是否有保護個人資料的「隱私權政策」,再決定是否同意提出相關的個人資料;並應持續叮嚀兒童及青少年不可洩漏自己或家人的任何資料(包括姓名、地址、電話、電子郵件信箱、照片、信用卡號等)給任何人。

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上次更新日期:2013-09-16

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「Margaret Bourdeaux:為什麼戰爭過後民眾會受更多苦?」- Why Civilians Suffer More Once a War Is Over


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So have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in a place with no rules? That sounds pretty cool.

You wake up one morning, however, and you discover that the reason there are no rules is because there's no government, and there are no laws. In fact, all social institutions have disappeared. So there's no schools, there's no hospitals, there's no police, there's no banks, there's no athletic clubs, there's no utilities.

Well, I know a little bit about what this is like, because when I was a medical student in 1999, I worked in a refugee camp in the Balkans during the Kosovo War. And when the war was over, I got permission—unbelievably—from my medical school to take some time off and follow some of the families that I had befriended in the camp back to their village in Kosovo, and understand how they navigated life in this postwar setting.

So, postwar Kosovo was a very interesting place because NATO troops were there—mostly to make sure the war didn't break out again. But other than that, it was actually a lawless place, and almost every social institution, both public and private, had been destroyed. So, I can tell you that when you go into one of these situations and settings, it is absolutely thrilling...for about 30 minutes, because that's about how long it takes before you run into a situation where you realize how incredibly vulnerable you are.

For me, that moment came when I had to cross the first checkpoint, and I realized as I drove up that I would be negotiating passage through this checkpoint with a heavily armed individual, who, if he decided to shoot me right then and there, he actually wouldn't be doing anything illegal. But the sense of vulnerability that I had was absolutely nothing in comparison to the vulnerability of the families that I got to know over that year.

You see, life in a society where there are no social institutions is riddled with danger and uncertainty, and simple questions like, "What are we going to eat tonight?" are very complicated to answer. Questions about security, when you don't have any security systems, are terrifying. Is that altercation I had with the neighbor down the block going to turn into a violent episode that will end my life or my family's life?

Health concerns when there is no health system are also terrifying. I listened as many families had to sort through questions like, "My infant has a fever. What am I going to do?" "My sister, who is pregnant, is bleeding. What should I do? Who should I turn to?" "Where are the doctors, where are the nurses? If I could find one, are they trustworthy? How will I pay them? In what currency will I pay them?" "If I need medications, where will I find them? If I take those medications, are they actually counterfeits?" and on and on. So, life in these settings, the dominant theme, the dominant feature of life, is the incredible vulnerability that people have to manage day in and day out because of the lack of social systems.

And it actually turns out that this feature of life is incredibly difficult to explain and be understood by people who are living outside of it. So, I discovered this. When I left Kosovo, I came back to Boston, I became a physician; I became a global public health policy researcher. I joined the Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital Division of Global Health. And I, as a researcher, really wanted to get started on this problem right away. I was like, "How do we reduce the crushing vulnerability of people living in these types of fragile settings? Is there any way that we can start to think about how to protect and quickly recover the institutions that are critical to survival, like the health system?" And I have to say, I had amazing colleagues. But one interesting thing about it was that this was sort of an unusual question for them. They were kind of like, "Oh, if you work in war, doesn't that mean you work on refugee camps, and you work on documenting mass atrocities?"—which is, by the way, very, very, very important.

So it took me a while to explain why I was so passionate about this issue, until about six years ago. And that's when this landmark study that looked at and described the public health consequences of war was published. And they came to an incredible, provocative conclusion. These researchers concluded that the vast majority of death and disability from war happens after the cessation of conflict. So the most dangerous time to be a person living in a conflict-affected state is after the cessation of hostilities; it's after the peace deal has been signed. It's when that political solution has been achieved. That seems so puzzling, but of course it's not, because war kills people by robbing them of their clinics, of their hospitals, of their supply chains. Their doctors are targeted, are killed; they're on the run. And more invisible and yet more deadly is the destruction of the health governance institutions and their finances.

So this is really not surprising at all to me. But what is surprising and somewhat dismaying, is how little impact this insight has had, in terms of how we think about human suffering and war. Let me give you a couple examples.

Last year, you may remember, that Ebola hit the West African country of Liberia. And there was a lot of reporting about this group, Doctors Without Borders, sounding the alarm and calling for aid and assistance. But not a lot of that reporting answered the question: Why is Doctors Without Borders even in Liberia? Doctors Without Borders is an amazing organization, dedicated and designed to provide emergency care in war zones. Liberia's civil war had ended in 2003—that was 11 years before Ebola even struck. When Ebola struck Liberia, there were less than 50 doctors in the entire country of 4.5 million people. Doctors Without Borders is in Liberia because Liberia still doesn't really have a functioning health system, 11 years later.

When the earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, the outpouring of international aid was phenomenal. But did you know that only two percent of that funding went to rebuild Haitian public institutions, including its health sector? From that perspective, Haitians continue to die from the earthquake even today.

I recently met this gentleman. This is Dr. Nezar Ismet. He's the Minister of Health in the northern autonomous region of Iraq, in Kurdistan. Here he is announcing that in the last nine months, his country, his region, has increased from four million people to five million people. That's a 25 percent increase. Thousands of these new arrivals have experienced incredible trauma. His doctors are working 16-hour days without pay. His budget has not increased by 25 percent; it has decreased by 20 percent, as funding has flowed to security concerns and to short-term relief efforts. When his health sector fails—and if history is any guide, it will—how do you think that's going to influence the decision making of the five million people in his region as they think about whether they should flee that type of vulnerable living situation?

So as you can see, this is a frustrating topic for me, and I really try to understand: Why the reluctance to protect and support indigenous health systems and security systems? I usually tier two concerns, two arguments. The first concern is about corruption, and the concern that people in these settings are corrupt and they are untrustworthy. And I will admit that I have met unsavory characters working in health sectors in these situations. But I will tell you that the opposite is absolutely true in every case I have worked on, from Afghanistan to Libya, to Kosovo, to Haiti, to Liberia—I have met inspiring people, who, when the chips were down for their country, they risked everything to save their health institutions. The trick for the outsider who wants to help is identifying who those individuals are, and building a pathway for them to lead. And that is exactly what happened in Afghanistan.

One of the unsung and untold success stories of our nation-building effort in Afghanistan involved the World Bank in 2002 investing heavily in identifying, training and promoting Afghani health sector leaders. These health sector leaders have pulled off an incredible feat in Afghanistan. They have aggressively increased access to health care for the majority of the population. They are rapidly improving the health status of the Afghan population, which used to be the worst in the world. In fact, the Afghan Ministry of Health does things that I wish we would do in America. They use things like data to make policy. It's incredible.

The other concern I hear a lot about is: "We just can't afford it, we just don't have the money. It's just unsustainable." I would submit to you that the current situation and the current system we have is the most expensive, inefficient system we could possibly conceive of. The current situation is that when governments like the US—or, let's say, the collection of governments that make up the European Commission—every year, they spend 15 billion dollars on just humanitarian and emergency and disaster relief worldwide. That's nothing about foreign aid, that's just disaster relief. Ninety-five percent of it goes to international relief agencies, that then have to import resources into these areas, and knit together some type of temporary health system, let's say, which they then dismantle and send away when they run out of money.
So our job, it turns out, is very clear. We, as the global health community policy experts, our first job is to become experts in how to monitor the strengths and vulnerabilities of health systems in threatened situations. And that's when we see doctors fleeing, when we see health resources drying up, when we see institutions crumbling—that's the emergency. That's when we need to sound the alarm and wave our arms. Okay? Not now. Everyone can see that's an emergency, they don't need us to tell them that.

Number two: places like where I work at Harvard need to take their cue from the World Bank experience in Afghanistan, and we need to—and we will—build robust platforms to support health sector leaders like these. These people risk their lives. I think we can match their courage with some support.

Number three: we need to reach out and make new partnerships. At our global health center, we have launched a new initiative with NATO and other security policy makers to explore with them what they can do to protect health system institutions during deployments. We want them to see that protecting health systems and other critical social institutions is an integral part of their mission. It's not just about avoiding collateral damage; it's about winning the peace.

But the most important partner we need to engage is you, the American public, and indeed, the world public. Because unless you understand the value of social institutions, like health systems in these fragile settings, you won't support efforts to save them. You won't click on that article that talks about "Hey, all those doctors are on the run in country X. I wonder what that means. I wonder what that means for that health system's ability to, let's say, detect influenza." "Hmm, it's probably not good." That's what I'd tell you.

Up on the screen, I've put up my three favorite American institution defenders and builders. Over here is George C. Marshall, he was the guy that proposed the Marshall Plan to save all of Europe's economic institutions after World War II. And this Eleanor Roosevelt. Her work on human rights really serves as the foundation for all of our international human rights organizations. Then my big favorite is Ben Franklin, who did many things in terms of creating institutions, but was the midwife of our constitution.

And I would say to you that these are folks who, when our country was threatened, or our world was threatened, they didn't retreat. They didn't talk about building walls. They talked about building institutions to protect human security, for their generation and also for ours. And I think our generation should do the same.

Thank you.

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    單句重覆、上一句、下一句:顧名思義,以句子為單位重覆播放,單句重覆鍵顯示橘色時為重覆播放狀態;顯示灰色時為正常播放狀態。按上一句鍵、下一句鍵時就會自動重覆播放該句。
    收錄佳句:點擊可增減想收藏的句子。

    中、英文字幕開關:中、英文字幕按鍵為綠色為開啟,灰色為關閉。鼓勵大家搞懂每一句的內容以後,關上字幕聽聽看,會發現自己好像在聽中文說故事一樣,會很有成就感喔!
    收錄單字:用滑鼠框選英文單字可以收藏不會的單字。
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