Hi, guys! I'm Alex. Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this lesson on gerunds. Now, in this lesson, we're going to look at all the various functions that a gerund can have in a sentence. So before we begin that, we should understand what a gerund is and how a gerund is formed. If you look at the title, you can see that a gerund is basically a "verb" plus "-ing." So, what is it? Is it a verb? Is it a noun? Well, it's actually a verbal noun, which means that while it looks like a verb—like, for example, in the first sentence we have "running"—it can perform the same functions as a noun. So think of it as a verbal noun, leaning more towards the noun part. Okay? So, let's look at the six ways that we can use a gerund.
嗨大家!我是 Alex。謝謝點閱，歡迎來到這堂討論「動名詞」的課程。現在，在這堂課中，我們要來看動名詞在句子裡可以有的各種功能。在我們開始前，我們應該了解什麼是動名詞以及動名詞是怎麼構成的。如果你看看標題，你可以看到動名詞基本上就是一個「動詞」加上 ing。那麼，動名詞是什麼？它是動詞嗎？它是名詞嗎？這個嘛，它其實就是動名詞，代表它雖然看起像動詞－－像是，舉例來說，在第一個句子裡我們有 running(跑)－－它可以行使和名詞相同的功能。所以把它當作是個動名詞，不過更偏向名詞那部分。可以嗎？那麼，來看看我們能使用動名詞的六種方式。
The top one says "Running is good for your heart." Now, as we've identified, "running" is the gerund. And in this situation, "running" is clearly the subject of the sentence. All right? So a gerund can be the subject of a sentence, just like a noun. Right? So "running," "running" is what you're talking about, the activity of running. You follow it with a verb "is"..."good for your heart." Okay?
最上面一句說 Running is good for your heart.(跑步對你的心臟有益)。現在，如我們已經認出來的，running(跑)是動名詞。而在這一個情況中，running 很明顯是句子的主詞。好嗎？所以一個動名詞可以當句子的主詞，就像名詞一樣。好？所以 running，running 是你在講的東西，跑步那活動。你用動詞 is(是)接在後面...good for your heart(對心臟有益)。好？
So, in the second one we say "He hates waking up early." Now, what is the gerund? The gerund is "waking." It's actually a complete thought here—"waking up." In which position of the sentence is the gerund in this sentence? So we have "He," which is the subject; we have "hates," which is the verb, and then he has to hate something, right? So in this situation, what he hates is the object, just like a noun. It can be "pizza" or anything else here. Think of it as a noun. Okay!
那，第二句裡我們說 He hates waking up early.(他討厭早起)。現在，動名詞是什麼？動名詞是 waking(醒)。這裡其實是個完整的概念－－waking up(起來)。動名詞在這個句子中是什麼職務呢？我們有 He(他)，這是主詞；我們有 hates(討厭)，這是動詞，然後他得討厭某件事，對吧？所以這情況中，他討厭的事物是受詞，就像名詞一樣。它在這可以是披薩或其它任何東西。把它想成一個名詞。好!
Number three: "What I hate most is repeating myself." So, what is the subject of this sentence? Is it "What I"? Is it "What I hate," "What I hate most," "What I hate most is"? Well, the complete subject is "What I hate most," and "is," and we have the gerund here, "repeating myself," so saying the same thing again and again. Now in this situation, the gerund is not actually an object because the subject is not doing anything to the gerund. You're just giving more information about the subject. So "What I hate most," and then you're actually telling me what you hate most. You're giving more information about it. So what you're doing is providing a subject complement. Okay...? Okay!
第三句：What I hate most is repeating myself.(我最討厭的事是重覆我講的話)。那，這個句子的主詞是什麼？是 What I？是 What I hate、What I hate most、What I hate most is 嗎？嗯，完整的主詞是 What I hate most(我最討厭的事)，然後 is(是)，而我們在這有動名詞 repeating myself(重覆我講的話)，所以就是同樣的事說了一遍又一遍。現在在這個情況，動名詞其實並非受詞，因為主詞沒有對動名詞做任何事。你只是在提供更多關於主詞的資訊。所以 What I hate most(我最討厭的事)，然後你在真的告訴我你最討厭什麼。你在給予更多資訊。所以你做的事是提供一個主詞補語。好...？好了!
Now, the next one, "I saw Jim riding his bike." So, you're probably getting the idea of a pattern developing here. First, let's identify the gerund. The gerund is "riding." Okay, now let's look at the sentence. We have "I," which is the subject, "saw," the verb, "Jim"—"I saw Jim." Okay, "Jim" is the object. Okay, now you're giving more information about Jim's actions here though. "I saw Jim." What was he doing? "He was riding his bike." So in this situation, the gerund is giving more information about the object's action. So in this situation, it's an object complement. Okay. Sorry for my writing there.
現在，下一個 I saw Jim riding his bike.(我看見 Jim 騎著他的腳踏車)。你可能開始知道這有個模式了。首先，我們找出動名詞。動名詞(註一)是 riding(騎)。好，現在我們來看句子。我們有 I(我)，這是主詞，動詞 saw(看見)、Jim－－I saw Jim.(我看見 Jim)。好，Jim 是受詞。好，然而現在你在這提供關於 Jim 的動作的更多資訊。I saw Jim.(我看見 Jim)他在做什麼呢？He was riding his bike.(他在騎他的腳踏車) 這情況中，動名詞是在提供更多關於受詞的動作的資訊。所以這情況下，動名詞是個受詞補語。好。抱歉我字有點醜。
And number five, a very, very common way to use gerunds and a very important rule, especially for intermediate and advanced speakers, "I'm interested in improving myself"—in getting better. So we have "improving" as the gerund. Now, why are we using the gerund? Why cannot we say "I am interested in improve" or "I am interested in to improve"? Well, anytime you have a preposition, and normally we have lots and lots of adjective and preposition combinations, after the preposition, always use a gerund. So, a gerund can be the object of a preposition. Now, more examples of this are "I am excited about doing something"; "I am used to doing something." Okay? So, it can be the object of a preposition.
第五個，一個動名詞非常非常普遍的用法，而且是個很重要的規則，特別是對中級和進階的講者來說，I'm interested in improving myself(我有興趣使自己進步)－－對變得更好有興趣。所以我們有 improving(改進)作動名詞。現在，我們為什麼用動名詞呢？我們為什麼不能說 I am interested in improve 或 I am interested in to improve 呢？這個嘛，每當你有個介係詞，而通常我們會有一堆形容詞和介係詞組合，在介係詞之後，永遠要用動名詞。所以，動名詞可以當介係詞的受詞。現在，更多這種例子是 I am excited about doing something(我對做某事感到很興奮)；I am used to doing something(我習慣做某事)。好？所以，動名詞可以是介係詞的受詞。
And finally, this is a rule which is often forgotten, and you can actually check out a deeper explanation of it on engvid.com, "She doesn't like your bossing her around." So, we have "bossing." This means telling a person what to do. Okay? So, "She doesn't like your bossing her around." Here we're using "your"; we're using a possessive. So in this situation, a gerund is actually the object of a possessive pronoun. Okay? So it can be the object of a possessive.
最後，這是個常被忘記的規則，你在 engvid.com 其實可以查看更深入的解釋，She doesn't like your bossing her around.(她不喜歡你對她頤指氣使) 所以，我們有 bossing(指使)。這代表告訴一個人該做什麼。好？所以，She doesn't like your bossing her around.(她不喜歡你對她頤指氣使)。這裡我們用 your(你的)；我們在使用所有格。所以這情況中，動名詞其實是所有格代名詞的受詞。好？所以動名詞可以是所有格的受詞。
There we go. So, as you can see, there are numerous ways that we can use a gerund.
It's not just a simple type of word with only one function; it has a variety of functions in a variety of ways that we can use it in different parts of a sentence. Now, do not confuse, never confuse a gerund with a continuous verb. So, if I say "She is running," okay, I am describing her action in the moment. "Running" is not a gerund. "Running" is a continuous verb in this situation. Okay? So that is really the most common confusion. Don't confuse a gerund for a continuous verb. Remember, it's a verbal noun. It can perform the same functions as any noun, like "pizza," "table," "car," etc.
好了。所以，如你所見，我們可以用動名詞的方式有許多種。它不是只有單一功能的簡單詞型；當我們在句子中的不同部分以各種方式使用它時，它有各種功能。現在，別搞錯，永遠不要把動名詞和持續性動詞混淆了。如果我說 She is running(她在跑步)，嗯，我是在描述她當時的動作。Running 不是個動名詞。Running 在這個狀況是持續性動詞。好？那真的是最常見的誤解。不要把動名詞誤認成持續性動詞了。記住，它是個動名詞。它可以行使和任何名詞一樣的功能，像是披薩、桌子、車子等等。
So, once more, a gerund can be the subject of a sentence. For example, "Smoking is bad for you." "Smoking" is the subject. It can be the object of a sentence. Like we have here, "He hates"—what does he hate?—"waking up early." It can be a subject complement. "What I hate most is repeating myself." Another example of this might be "My favorite activity is hiking," for example. "I saw Jim riding his bike"—object complement. "I'm interested in improving myself." So it can be the object of a preposition. All right? So anytime you have a preposition, like "in," "at," "on," "by," "against," "with." Okay? "-Ing," "-ing," "-ing." And finally, it can be the object of a possessive. So, "She doesn't like your bossing her around." Or, this can even be something simple like "I don't like her cooking." Okay? So you're not describing her activity; you're describing the thing, "her cooking." Or I can say "Your speaking..." or "Your listening..." "Your writing needs to improve."
所以，再說一次，動名詞可以是一個句子的主詞。例如，Smoking is bad for you.(吸菸對你有害)。Smoking(吸菸)是主詞。動名詞可以是一個句子的受詞。像我們這裡的 He hates(他討厭)－－他討厭什麼？－－waking up early(早起)。動名詞可以是主詞補語。What I hate most is repeating myself.(我最討厭的事是重覆我講的話) 這的另一個例子可以是 My favorite activity is hiking(我最愛的活動是健行)，舉例來說。I saw Jim riding his bike(我看見 Jim 騎著他的腳踏車)－－受詞補語。I'm interested in improving myself.(我有興趣使自己進步) 所以動名詞可以是介係詞的受詞。好？所以每當你有個介係詞，像是 in、at、on、by、against、with。好嗎？加上 -ing、-ing、ing。最後，動名詞可以是所有格的受詞。所以，She doesn't like your bossing her around.(她不喜歡你對她頤指氣使)。或者，這甚至可以是一個像 I don't like her cooking(我不喜歡她的廚藝)這樣簡單的東西。好？所以你不是在描述她的行動；你是在形容那件事，her cooking(她的廚藝)。或我可以說 Your speaking...(你的口說)或 Your listening...(你的聽力) Your writing needs to improve(你的寫作需要改進)。
Okay, guys, to test your understanding of this knowledge, as always, you can check out the quiz on engvid.com. Take care and good luck. And don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel. See ya!
好了，大夥們，要考考你對這學問的理解，老樣子，你可以看看 engvid.com 上的測驗。保重然後祝你好運。別忘了訂閱我的 YouTube 頻道。掰啦!
註：此處 see 為感官動詞，正確結構應是感官動詞 + 受詞 + 現在分詞，因此這裡的 riding 是現在分詞(present participle)而非動名詞。