下載App 希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
下載App 希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
IE版本不足
你的 IE 瀏覽器太舊了 更新 IE 瀏覽器或點選連結下載 Google Chrome 瀏覽器 前往下載

免費註冊
! 這組帳號已經註冊過了
Email 帳號
密碼請填入 6 位數以上密碼
已經有帳號了?
忘記密碼
! 這組帳號已經註冊過了
您的 Email
請輸入您註冊時填寫的 Email,
我們將會寄送設定新密碼的連結給您。
寄信了!請到信箱打開密碼連結信
密碼信已寄至
沒有收到信嗎? 點這裡重寄一次
如果您尚未收到信,請前往垃圾郵件查看,謝謝!

恭喜您註冊成功!

查看會員功能

註冊未完成

《HOPE English 希平方》服務條款關於個人資料收集與使用之規定

隱私權政策
上次更新日期:2014-12-30

希平方 為一英文學習平台,我們每天固定上傳優質且豐富的影片內容,讓您不但能以有趣的方式學習英文,還能增加內涵,豐富知識。我們非常注重您的隱私,以下說明為當您使用我們平台時,我們如何收集、使用、揭露、轉移及儲存你的資料。請您花一些時間熟讀我們的隱私權做法,我們歡迎您的任何疑問或意見,提供我們將產品、服務、內容、廣告做得更好。

本政策涵蓋的內容包括:希平方 如何處理蒐集或收到的個人資料。
本隱私權保護政策只適用於: 希平方 平台,不適用於非 希平方 平台所有或控制的公司,也不適用於非 希平方 僱用或管理之人。

個人資料的收集與使用
當您註冊 希平方 平台時,我們會詢問您姓名、電子郵件、出生日期、職位、行業及個人興趣等資料。在您註冊完 希平方 帳號並登入我們的服務後,我們就能辨認您的身分,讓您使用更完整的服務,或參加相關宣傳、優惠及贈獎活動。希平方 也可能從商業夥伴或其他公司處取得您的個人資料,並將這些資料與 希平方 所擁有的您的個人資料相結合。

我們所收集的個人資料, 將用於通知您有關 希平方 最新產品公告、軟體更新,以及即將發生的事件,也可用以協助改進我們的服務。

我們也可能使用個人資料為內部用途。例如:稽核、資料分析、研究等,以改進 希平方公司 產品、服務及客戶溝通。

瀏覽資料的收集與使用
希平方 自動接收並記錄您電腦和瀏覽器上的資料,包括 IP 位址、希平方 cookie 中的資料、軟體和硬體屬性以及您瀏覽的網頁紀錄。

隱私權政策修訂
我們會不定時修正與變更《隱私權政策》,不會在未經您明確同意的情況下,縮減本《隱私權政策》賦予您的權利。隱私權政策變更時一律會在本頁發佈;如果屬於重大變更,我們會提供更明顯的通知 (包括某些服務會以電子郵件通知隱私權政策的變更)。我們還會將本《隱私權政策》的舊版加以封存,方便您回顧。

服務條款
歡迎您加入看 ”希平方”
上次更新日期:2013-09-09

歡迎您加入看 ”希平方”
感謝您使用我們的產品和服務(以下簡稱「本服務」),本服務是由 希平方 所提供。
本服務條款訂立的目的,是為了保護會員以及所有使用者(以下稱會員)的權益,並構成會員與本服務提供者之間的契約,在使用者完成註冊手續前,應詳細閱讀本服務條款之全部條文,一旦您按下「註冊」按鈕,即表示您已知悉、並完全同意本服務條款的所有約定。如您是法律上之無行為能力人或限制行為能力人(如未滿二十歲之未成年人),則您在加入會員前,請將本服務條款交由您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)閱讀,並得到其同意,您才可註冊及使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務。當您開始使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務時,則表示您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)已經閱讀、了解並同意本服務條款。 我們可能會修改本條款或適用於本服務之任何額外條款,以(例如)反映法律之變更或本服務之變動。您應定期查閱本條款內容。這些條款如有修訂,我們會在本網頁發佈通知。變更不會回溯適用,並將於公布變更起十四天或更長時間後方始生效。不過,針對本服務新功能的變更,或基於法律理由而為之變更,將立即生效。如果您不同意本服務之修訂條款,則請停止使用該本服務。

第三人網站的連結 本服務或協力廠商可能會提供連結至其他網站或網路資源的連結。您可能會因此連結至其他業者經營的網站,但不表示希平方與該等業者有任何關係。其他業者經營的網站均由各該業者自行負責,不屬希平方控制及負責範圍之內。

兒童及青少年之保護 兒童及青少年上網已經成為無可避免之趨勢,使用網際網路獲取知識更可以培養子女的成熟度與競爭能力。然而網路上的確存有不適宜兒童及青少年接受的訊息,例如色情與暴力的訊息,兒童及青少年有可能因此受到心靈與肉體上的傷害。因此,為確保兒童及青少年使用網路的安全,並避免隱私權受到侵犯,家長(或監護人)應先檢閱各該網站是否有保護個人資料的「隱私權政策」,再決定是否同意提出相關的個人資料;並應持續叮嚀兒童及青少年不可洩漏自己或家人的任何資料(包括姓名、地址、電話、電子郵件信箱、照片、信用卡號等)給任何人。

為了維護 希平方 網站安全,我們需要您的協助:

您承諾絕不為任何非法目的或以任何非法方式使用本服務,並承諾遵守中華民國相關法規及一切使用網際網路之國際慣例。您若係中華民國以外之使用者,並同意遵守所屬國家或地域之法令。您同意並保證不得利用本服務從事侵害他人權益或違法之行為,包括但不限於:
A. 侵害他人名譽、隱私權、營業秘密、商標權、著作權、專利權、其他智慧財產權及其他權利;
B. 違反依法律或契約所應負之保密義務;
C. 冒用他人名義使用本服務;
D. 上載、張貼、傳輸或散佈任何含有電腦病毒或任何對電腦軟、硬體產生中斷、破壞或限制功能之程式碼之資料;
E. 干擾或中斷本服務或伺服器或連結本服務之網路,或不遵守連結至本服務之相關需求、程序、政策或規則等,包括但不限於:使用任何設備、軟體或刻意規避看 希平方 - 看 YouTube 學英文 之排除自動搜尋之標頭 (robot exclusion headers);

服務中斷或暫停
本公司將以合理之方式及技術,維護會員服務之正常運作,但有時仍會有無法預期的因素導致服務中斷或故障等現象,可能將造成您使用上的不便、資料喪失、錯誤、遭人篡改或其他經濟上損失等情形。建議您於使用本服務時宜自行採取防護措施。 希平方 對於您因使用(或無法使用)本服務而造成的損害,除故意或重大過失外,不負任何賠償責任。

版權宣告
上次更新日期:2013-09-16

希平方 內所有資料之著作權、所有權與智慧財產權,包括翻譯內容、程式與軟體均為 希平方 所有,須經希平方同意合法才得以使用。
希平方歡迎你分享網站連結、單字、片語、佳句,使用時須標明出處,並遵守下列原則:

  • 禁止用於獲取個人或團體利益,或從事未經 希平方 事前授權的商業行為
  • 禁止用於政黨或政治宣傳,或暗示有支持某位候選人
  • 禁止用於非希平方認可的產品或政策建議
  • 禁止公佈或傳送任何誹謗、侮辱、具威脅性、攻擊性、不雅、猥褻、不實、色情、暴力、違反公共秩序或善良風俗或其他不法之文字、圖片或任何形式的檔案
  • 禁止侵害或毀損希平方或他人名譽、隱私權、營業秘密、商標權、著作權、專利權、其他智慧財產權及其他權利、違反法律或契約所應付支保密義務
  • 嚴禁謊稱希平方辦公室、職員、代理人或發言人的言論背書,或作為募款的用途

網站連結
歡迎您分享 希平方 網站連結,與您的朋友一起學習英文。

抱歉傳送失敗!

不明原因問題造成傳送失敗,請儘速與我們聯繫!
希平方 x ICRT

「Iqbal Quadir:以手機對抗貧窮」- How Mobile Phones Can Fight Poverty


框選或點兩下字幕可以直接查字典喔!

mismatch srt number = 0 play
mismatch srt number = 1 play
mismatch srt number = 2 play
mismatch srt number = 3 play
mismatch srt number = 4 play
mismatch srt number = 5 play
mismatch srt number = 6 play
mismatch srt number = 7 play
mismatch srt number = 8 play
mismatch srt number = 9 play
mismatch srt number = 10 play
mismatch srt number = 11 play
mismatch srt number = 12 play
mismatch srt number = 13 play
mismatch srt number = 14 play
mismatch srt number = 15 play
mismatch srt number = 16 play
mismatch srt number = 17 play
mismatch srt number = 18 play
mismatch srt number = 19 play
mismatch srt number = 20 play
mismatch srt number = 21 play
mismatch srt number = 22 play
mismatch srt number = 23 play
mismatch srt number = 24 play
mismatch srt number = 25 play
mismatch srt number = 26 play
mismatch srt number = 27 play
mismatch srt number = 28 play
mismatch srt number = 29 play
mismatch srt number = 30 play
mismatch srt number = 31 play
mismatch srt number = 32 play
mismatch srt number = 33 play
mismatch srt number = 34 play
mismatch srt number = 35 play
mismatch srt number = 36 play
mismatch srt number = 37 play
mismatch srt number = 38 play
mismatch srt number = 39 play
mismatch srt number = 40 play
mismatch srt number = 41 play
mismatch srt number = 42 play
mismatch srt number = 43 play
mismatch srt number = 44 play
mismatch srt number = 45 play
mismatch srt number = 46 play
mismatch srt number = 47 play
mismatch srt number = 48 play
mismatch srt number = 49 play
mismatch srt number = 50 play
mismatch srt number = 51 play
mismatch srt number = 52 play
mismatch srt number = 53 play
mismatch srt number = 54 play
mismatch srt number = 55 play
mismatch srt number = 56 play
mismatch srt number = 57 play
mismatch srt number = 58 play
mismatch srt number = 59 play
mismatch srt number = 60 play
mismatch srt number = 61 play
mismatch srt number = 62 play
mismatch srt number = 63 play
mismatch srt number = 64 play
mismatch srt number = 65 play
mismatch srt number = 66 play
mismatch srt number = 67 play
mismatch srt number = 68 play
mismatch srt number = 69 play
mismatch srt number = 70 play
mismatch srt number = 71 play
mismatch srt number = 72 play
mismatch srt number = 73 play
mismatch srt number = 74 play
mismatch srt number = 75 play
mismatch srt number = 76 play
mismatch srt number = 77 play
mismatch srt number = 78 play
mismatch srt number = 79 play
mismatch srt number = 80 play
mismatch srt number = 81 play
mismatch srt number = 82 play
mismatch srt number = 83 play
mismatch srt number = 84 play
mismatch srt number = 85 play
mismatch srt number = 86 play
mismatch srt number = 87 play
mismatch srt number = 88 play
mismatch srt number = 89 play
mismatch srt number = 90 play
mismatch srt number = 91 play
mismatch srt number = 92 play
mismatch srt number = 93 play
mismatch srt number = 94 play
mismatch srt number = 95 play
mismatch srt number = 96 play
mismatch srt number = 97 play
mismatch srt number = 98 play
mismatch srt number = 99 play
mismatch srt number = 100 play
mismatch srt number = 101 play
mismatch srt number = 102 play
mismatch srt number = 103 play
mismatch srt number = 104 play
mismatch srt number = 105 play
mismatch srt number = 106 play
mismatch srt number = 107 play
mismatch srt number = 108 play
mismatch srt number = 109 play
mismatch srt number = 110 play
mismatch srt number = 111 play
mismatch srt number = 112 play
mismatch srt number = 113 play
mismatch srt number = 114 play
mismatch srt number = 115 play
mismatch srt number = 116 play
mismatch srt number = 117 play
mismatch srt number = 118 play
mismatch srt number = 119 play
mismatch srt number = 120 play
mismatch srt number = 121 play
mismatch srt number = 122 play
mismatch srt number = 123 play
mismatch srt number = 124 play
mismatch srt number = 125 play
mismatch srt number = 126 play
mismatch srt number = 127 play
mismatch srt number = 128 play
mismatch srt number = 129 play
mismatch srt number = 130 play
mismatch srt number = 131 play
mismatch srt number = 132 play
mismatch srt number = 133 play
mismatch srt number = 134 play
mismatch srt number = 135 play
mismatch srt number = 136 play
mismatch srt number = 137 play
mismatch srt number = 138 play
mismatch srt number = 139 play
mismatch srt number = 140 play
mismatch srt number = 141 play
mismatch srt number = 142 play
mismatch srt number = 143 play
mismatch srt number = 144 play
mismatch srt number = 145 play
mismatch srt number = 146 play
mismatch srt number = 147 play
mismatch srt number = 148 play
mismatch srt number = 149 play
mismatch srt number = 150 play
mismatch srt number = 151 play
mismatch srt number = 152 play
mismatch srt number = 153 play
mismatch srt number = 154 play
mismatch srt number = 155 play
==================================

I'll just take you to Bangladesh for a minute.

Before I tell that story, we should ask ourselves the question: Why does poverty exist? I mean, there is plenty of knowledge and scientific breakthroughs. We all live in the same planet, but still, there's a great deal of poverty in the world. And I think—so I want to throw a perspective that I have so that we can assess this project, or any other project, for that matter, to see whether it's contributing or—contributing to poverty or trying to alleviate it.

Rich countries have been sending aid to poor countries for the last 60 years. And by and large, this has failed. And you can see this book, written by someone who worked in the World Bank for 20 years, and he finds economic growth in this country to be elusive. By and large, it did not work. So the question is why is that?

In my mind, there is something to learn from the history of Europe. I mean, even here, yesterday I was walking across the street, and they showed three bishops were executed 500 years ago, right across the street from here. So my point is there's a lot of struggle has gone in Europe, where citizens were empowered by technologies. And they demanded authorities from—to come down from their high horses. And in the end, there's better bargaining between the authorities and citizens, and democracies, capitalism—everything else flourished. And so you can see, the real process of—and this is backed up by this 500-page book—that the authorities came down and citizens got up.

But if you look, if you have that perspective, then you can see what happened in the last 60 years. Aid actually did the opposite. It empowered authorities, and, as a result, marginalized citizens. The authorities did not have the reason to make economic growth happen so that they could tax people and make more money for to run their business, because they were getting it from abroad. And in fact, if you see oil-rich countries, where citizens are not yet empowered, the same thing goes—Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, all sorts of countries, because the aid and oil or mineral money acts the same way. It empowers authorities without activating the citizens—their hands, legs, brains, what have you.

And if you agree with that, then I think the best way to improve these countries is to recognize that economic development is of the people, by the people, for the people. And that is the real network effect. If citizens can network and make themselves more organized and productive so that their voices are heard, so then things would improve.

And to contrast that, you can see the most important institution in the world, the World Bank, is an organization of the government, by the government, for the governments. Just see the contrast. And that is the perspective I have, and then I can start my story.

Of course, how would you empower citizens? There could be all sorts of technologies. And one is cell phones. Recently "The Economist" recognized this, but I stumbled upon the idea 12 years ago, and that's what I've been working on. So 12 years ago, I was trying to be an investment banker in New York.

We had—quite a few our colleagues were connected by a computer network. And we got more productive because we didn't have to exchange floppy disks; we could update each other more often. But one time it broke down. And it reminded me of a day in 1971. There was a war going on in my country. And my family moved out of an urban place, where we used to live, to a remote rural area where it was safer. And one time my mother asked me to get some medicine for a younger sibling. And I walked 10 miles or so, all morning, to get there, to the medicine man. And he wasn't there, so I walked all afternoon back. So I had another unproductive day.

So while I was sitting in a tall building in New York, I put those two experiences together side by side, and basically concluded that connectivity is productivity—whether it's in a modern office or an underdeveloped village. So naturally, I—the implication of that is that the telephone is a weapon against poverty. And if that's the case, then the question is how many telephones did we have at that time?

And it turns out, that there was one telephone in Bangladesh for every 500 people. And all those phones were in the few urban places. The vast rural areas, where 100 million people lived, there were no telephones. So just imagine how many man-months or man-years are wasted, just like I wasted a day. If you just multiply by 100 million people, let's say, losing one day a month, whatever, and you see a vast amount of resource wasted. And after all, poor countries, like rich countries, one thing we've got equal is their days are the same length: 24 hours. So if you lose that precious resource, where you are somewhat equal to the richer countries, that's a huge waste.

So I started looking for any evidence that—does connectivity really increase productivity? And I couldn't find much, really, but I found this graph produced by the ITU, which is the International Telecommunication Union based in Geneva. They show an interesting thing. That you see the horizontal axis is where you place your country. So the United States or the UK would be here, outside. And so the impact of one new telephone, which is on the vertical axis, is very little.

But if you come back to a poorer country, where the GNP per capita is, let's say, 500 dollars, or 300 dollars, then the impact is huge: 6,000 dollars, or 5,000 dollars. The question was how much did it cost to install a new telephone in Bangladesh? It turns out: 2,000 dollars. So if you spend 2,000 dollars, and let's say, the telephone lasts 10 years, and if 5,000 dollars every year—so that's 50,000 dollars. So obviously this was a gadget to have. And of course, if the cost of installing a telephone is going down, because there's a digital revolution going on, then it would be even more dramatic.

And I knew a little economics by then—it says Adam Smith taught us that specialization leads to productivity. But how would you specialize? Let's say, I'm a fisherman and a farmer. And Chris is a fisherman farmer. Both are generalists. So the point is that we could only—the only way we could depend on each other is if we can connect with each other, and if we are neighbors, I could just walk over to his house. But then we are limiting our economic sphere to something very small area. But in order to expand that, you need a river, or you need a highway, or you need telephone lines. But in any event, it's connectivity that leads to dependability. And that leads to specialization. That leads to productivity.

So the question was I started looking at this issue and going back and forth between Bangladesh and New York. There were a lot of reasons people told me why we don't have enough telephones. And one of them is the lacking buying power. Poor people apparently don't have the power to buy. But the point is if it's a production tool, why do we have to worry about that? I mean, in America, people buy cars, and they put very little money down. They get a car, and they go to work. The work pays them a salary; the salary allows them to pay for the car. Over time, the car pays for itself.

So if the telephone is a production tool, then we don't quite have to worry about the purchasing power. And of course, even if that's true, then what about initial buying power? So then the question is why can't we have some kind of shared access? In the United States, we have—everybody needs a banking service, but very few of us are trying to buy a bank. So it's a bank tends to serve a whole community. So we could do that for telephones.

And also people told me that we have a lot of important primary needs to meet: food, clothing, shelter, whatever. But again, it's very paternalistic. You should be raising income and let people decide what they want to do with their money. But the real problem is the lack of other infrastructures. See, you need some kind of infrastructure to bring a new thing. For instance, the Internet was booming in the U.S. because there were people who had computers. They had modems. They had telephone lines, so it's very easy to bring in a new idea, like the Internet. But that's what's lacking in a poor country.

So for example, we didn't have ways to have credit checks, few banks to collect bills, etc. But that's why I noticed Grameen Bank, which is a bank for poor people, and had 1,100 branches, 12,000 employees, 2.3 million borrowers. And they had these branches. I thought I could put cell towers and create a network. And anyway, to cut the time short—so I started—I first went to them and said, "You know, perhaps I could connect all your branches and make you more efficient." But you know, they have, after all, evolved in a country without telephones, so they are decentralized. I mean, of course there might be other good reasons, but this was one of the reasons—they had to be, and so they were not that interested to connect all their branches, and then to be—and rock the boat.

So I started focusing: What is it that they really do? So what happens is that somebody borrows money from the bank, she typically buys a cow. The cow gives milk. And she sells the milk to the villagers, and pays off the loan. And this is a business for her, but it's milk for everybody else. And suddenly I realized that a cell phone could be a cow, because she could borrow 200 dollars from the bank, get a phone and have the phone for everybody. And it's a business for her. So I wrote to the bank, and they thought for a while, and they said, "It's a little crazy, but logical. If you think it can be done, come and make it happen." So I quit my job; I went back to Bangladesh. I created a company in America called Gonofone, which in Bengali means "people's phone." And angel investors in America put in money into that. I flew around the world. After about a million—I mean, I got rejected from lots of places, because I was not only trying to go to a poor country, I was trying to go to the poor of the poor country.

After about a million miles and a meaningful—a substantial loss of hair, I eventually put together a consortium, and—which involved the Norwegian telephone company, which provided the know-how, and the Grameen Bank provided the infrastructure to spread the service. To make the story short, here is the coverage of the country. You can see it's pretty much covered. Even in Bangladesh, there are some empty places. But we are also investing around another 300 million dollars this year to extend that coverage.

Now, about that cow model I talked about—there are about 115,000 people who are retailing telephone services in their neighborhoods. And it's serving 52,000 villages, which represent about 80 million people. And these phones are generating about 100 million dollars for the company. And two dollars profit per entrepreneur per day, which is like 700 dollars per year.

And of course, it's very beneficial in a lot of ways. It increases income, improves welfare, etc. And the result is, right now, this company is the largest telephone company, with 3.5 million subscribers, 115,000 of these phones I talked about—that produces about a third of the traffic in the network. And 2004, the net profit, after taxes—very serious taxes—was 120 million dollars. And the company contributed about 190 million dollars to the government coffers.

And again, here are some of the lessons. "The government needs to provide economically viable services." Actually, this is an instance where private companies can provide that. "Governments need to subsidize private companies." This is what some people think. And actually, private companies help governments with taxes. "Poor people are recipients." Poor people are a resource. "Services cost too much for the poor." Their involvement reduces the cost. "The poor are uneducated and cannot do much." They are very eager learners and very capable survivors. I've been very surprised. Most of them learn how to operate a telephone within a day. "Poor countries need aid." Businesses—this one company has raised the—if the ideal figures are even five percent true, this one company is raising the GNP of the country much more than the aid the country receives. And as I was trying to show you, as far as I'm concerned, aid does damages because it removes the government from its citizens.

And this is a new project I have with Dean Kamen, the famous inventor in America. He has produced some power generators, which we are now doing an experiment in Bangladesh in two villages, where cow manure is producing biogas, which is running these generators. And each of these generators is selling electricity to 20 households each. It's just an experiment. We don't know how far it will go, but it's going on.

Thank you.

播放本句

登入使用學習功能

使用Email登入

HOPE English 播放器使用小提示

  • 功能簡介

    單句重覆、上一句、下一句:顧名思義,以句子為單位重覆播放,單句重覆鍵顯示橘色時為重覆播放狀態;顯示灰色時為正常播放狀態。按上一句鍵、下一句鍵時就會自動重覆播放該句。
    收錄佳句:點擊可增減想收藏的句子。

    中、英文字幕開關:中、英文字幕按鍵為綠色為開啟,灰色為關閉。鼓勵大家搞懂每一句的內容以後,關上字幕聽聽看,會發現自己好像在聽中文說故事一樣,會很有成就感喔!
    收錄單字:用滑鼠框選英文單字可以收藏不會的單字。
  • 分享
    如果您覺得本篇短片很有趣或很喜歡,在短片結束時有分享連結,可以分享給朋友一同欣賞,一起看YouTube學英文!

    或是您有收錄很優秀的句子時,也可以分享佳句給大家,一同看佳句學英文!