Hello. I'm Sammy, and this is part two of the Connected Speech series. Connected speech is used when you're speaking quickly and casually, and it can help your American English sound more natural. Today, we'll be discussing informal contractions.
Can you hear the differences between the formal and casual sentences below?
Formal: "I'm going to eat cake."
Casual: "I'm gonna eat cake."
"Do you want to go?" "Do you wanna go?"
"I have to do homework." "I hafta do homework."
In the following story, pay attention to the underlined words and see if you can hear the informal contractions.
I wanna surprise my sister for her birthday. So I've gotta buy her a present. I'm gonna hafta go to the mall. I coulda gotten her a dog, but she already has a cat. I woulda bought her a car, but it's too expensive. Instead, I'm gonna make her a big birthday cake.
Phrases like "gonna," "wanna," "hafta" are called informal contractions. They are often used in casual spoken American English, but not in written English. They are formed by combining words to shorten them from their original form. Practicing these can help you sound more natural and become better at understanding fast, casual speech.
Here are some examples of informal contractions with "to": "Going to" becomes "gonna," "want to" "wanna," "have to" "hafta," "got to" "gotta," "ought to" "oughtta."
這裡是一些有 to 的非正式縮讀字的例子：Going to 變成 gonna(將要)、want to 變成 wanna(想要)、have to 變成 hafta(必須)、got to 變成 gotta(必須)、ought to 變成 oughtta(應該)。
There are also examples with modal verbs plus "have," such as "should have" becoming "shoulda," "would have" "woulda," "could have" "coulda," "might have" "mighta."
還有一些情態動詞加上 have 的例子，像是 should have 變成 shoulda(應該)、would have 變成 woulda(就會)、could have 變成 coulda(可以)、might have 變成 mighta(可能)。
Let's practice! In the following story, try to pronounce the underlined phrases using informal contractions. Press pause at each page to practice at your own pace.
I want to surprise my sister for her birthday. So I've got to buy her a present. I'm going to have to go to the mall. I could have gotten her a dog, but she already has a cat. I would have bought her a car, but it's too expensive. Instead, I am going to make her a big birthday cake.
I wanna surprise my sister for her birthday, so I've gotta buy her a present. I'm gonna hafta go to the mall. I coulda gotten her a dog, but she already has a cat. I woulda bought her a car, but it's too expensive. Instead, I'm gonna make her a big birthday cake.
Next time, we'll discuss linking in part three of the Connected Speech series. This is American English. Thanks for watching.