使用chrome瀏覽器,輕鬆學英文。

如有任何問題,歡迎聯絡我們

希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中

「倫敦金融城的秘密(二)政府」- The (Secret) City of London, Part 2: Government


框選或點兩下字幕可以直接查字典喔!

The City of London is a unique place.
倫敦金融城是個特別的地方。

It's the city in a city in a country in a country that runs its government with perhaps the most complicated elections in the world, involving medieval guilds, modern corporations, mandatory titles and fancy hats, all of which are connected in this horrifying org chart.
它是個國中之國的城中之城,以大概是世界上最複雜的選舉制度運作其政府,涉及了中世紀的同業公會、現代的公司、法定的稱謂和花俏的帽子,這些全都在這個可怕的組織圖裡相互連結。

Why so complicated?
為什麼這麼複雜?

Though the new Skyscrapers might make you think the City of London is relatively young, it's actually the oldest continuous government on the Island of Great Britain. The City of London predates the Empire that Victoria ruled, the Kingdoms Anne united and the Magna Carta that John reluctantly signed.
雖然新的摩天大樓會讓你覺得倫敦金融城相對來說還年輕,但實際上它是大不列顛島上最年長的連續政府。倫敦金融城在年代上早於維多利亞統治的帝國、安妮女王(1702-1714年的女王)統一的王國,以及約翰王心不甘情不願簽下的大憲章。

While the London which surrounds the city only got to electing its first Mayor in 2000, the list of Mayors who've governed the City of London is almost seven hundred people long, going back more than a thousand years.
雖然圍繞倫敦金融城的倫敦市在2000年才首次選出第一位市長,但曾治理過倫敦金融城的市長名單有將近七百人,可遠遠追朔回一千年前。

The City of London's government is so old that there's no surviving record of exactly when it was born. There are only documents, like the Magna Carta, which mention the pre-existing powers of the City of London already had at that point in time.
倫敦金融城的政府太老了,以致於它確切誕生的時間沒有倖存的紀錄。只有像是大憲章的文件,有提到倫敦金融城在那個時間點之前就已經有了勢力。

So while a government like the United States's officially gets its power from the people, and Parliament gets its power from the Crown (which in turn gets it from God), the City of London gets its power from "time immemorial," meaning that the City is so old. It just is.
所以儘管美國這樣的政府從人民身上正式得到權力、議會從王權得到權力(反過來王權從神那裡取得的權力) ,倫敦金融城則是從「太古時代」得到權力,意思就是這城市實在太老了。它就是這麼老。

And that age brings with it unusual and complicated traditions, the most notable of these, perhaps, is that in City of London elections, companies get votes. Quite a lot actually...about 3/4th of the votes cast in City elections are from companies with the remaining 1/4th from residents.
隨同它的年歲也帶來了獨特、複雜的傳統,其中最值得注意的,或許是在倫敦金融城的選舉中,公司行號持有選票。事實上還挺多的...倫敦金融城選舉中約有四分之三投下的選票是來自於公司行號,剩下的四分之一來自於居民。

The way it works is that the bigger a company is, the more votes it gets from the City of London. The companies then give their votes to select employees who work but do not live within the city, and it's these employees who do the actual voting at election time.
它運作的方式是,公司越大,從倫敦金融城拿到的選票就越多。接著這些公司將其選票給予那些挑出來的、在這城市工作、但不居住在此城市的員工,而就是這些員工在選舉時實際投票。

The result is that the Common Council, the bureaucratic beating heart of the City of London, has about twenty common councilors elected by residents of the city and about eighty elected by companies of the city.
結果是,市議會,倫敦金融城跳動的官僚心臟,有大約二十名市議會議員是由倫敦金融城的居民選出,而有大約八十名是由倫敦金融城的公司選出。

The reasoning behind this unusual tradition is that for every one person who lives in the City of London, forty-three people commute in every day. In total that's three hundred thousand commuters using City services, and whose employment depends on the City of London being business friendly.
這個特殊傳統背後的理由是,對於每一個住在倫敦金融城的人,就有四十三個每天通勤的人。整體來說有三十萬名通勤族在使用城裡的服務,他們的工作則仰賴倫敦金融城對企業友好的態度。

The man in charge of the common council and who heads The City's government is The Right Honorable, the Lord Mayor of London.
負責市議會和帶領倫敦金融城政府的人,是「正義高尚倫敦金融城市長大人」。

Now, suppose you want to be Lord Mayor... Surely, just as in that other London all you'll need to do is:
a) Be a British, Commonwealth, or EU citizen, who has
b) lived in the city for a year, and who
c) wins the election
現在,假如你想要成為市長大人...當然,就像在另外一個倫敦,所有你需要做的是:
a) 成為英國,聯邦,或是歐盟的公民
b) 已在此城市住了一年
c) 贏得選舉

Right? No.
對吧?才怪。

In The City of London, that's not nearly enough. Ready for the qualifications list?
在倫敦金融城,那還差得遠。準備好看資格條件列表了嗎?

Before you can even run for Lord Mayor, you need to have been a Sheriff of The City of London. But before you can be Sheriff, you need to be an Aldermen.
在你可以參選市長大人前,你需要當過倫敦金融城的郡長。但在你可以當上郡長之前,你需要先當市府參事。

What's an Aldermen? Well, the City of London is divided into twenty-five wards, and each Ward elects one Aldermen to represent it on the Court of Aldermen (a sub-section of the common council).
市府參事是什麼?嗯,倫敦金融城分成二十五個區,每個區選出一名市府參事在參事議政廳代表該區(參事議政廳是市議會的附屬部門)。

But before you can run for Alderman, you need to gain Freeman Status... and who gives out Freeman Status? Why none other than the very Court of Aldermen you're trying to get elected to, which might just seem like a conflict of interest?
但在你可以參選市府參事前,你需要得到自由人身分...而誰發放自由人身分呢?為什麼不是別人而正是你試著要選進去的參事議政廳?這看起來似乎是利益上的衝突。

Luckily, there is another way to get the Freeman Status: join one of the City's Guilds. Sadly, they aren't called guilds, they're called Livery Companies (a name which is both more boring and less descriptive, but the remnants of medieval guilds many of them are), and within the City there are a hundred and eight of them to choose from, including, but not limited to:
很幸運地,有另一個得到自由人身分的方式:加入其中一個倫敦金融城的同業公會。不幸的是,他們不叫公會,他們稱作倫敦金融城同業公會(一個更無聊、更少描述性的名字,但中世紀公會的殘存者很多都是),而在倫敦金融城中其中有一百零八個可供選擇,包括但不限於以下:

The Apothecaries, The Fishmongers, The Masons, The Mercers, The Scientific Instrument Makers, The Bankers, The Shipwrights, The Wheelwrights, The Butchers, The bakers, Two different candlestick makers and the most exciting of all: The Chartered Accountants!
藥材商公會、魚商公會、泥瓦匠公會、綢布商人公會、科學儀器製造商公會、銀行業公會、造船工人公會、車匠公會、屠夫公會、麵包師傅公會、兩個燭台的製造商公會、還有全部之中最刺激的:特許會計師公會!

Many of these guilds, like the Fletchers, have become charities, but some are still active, such as the Goldsmiths who test the quality of British coinage and the Hackney Carriage Drivers who license taxi drivers.
這些公會裡有許多,像是Fletchers(造箭商),變成慈善機構,但有些還很活躍,像是測試英國貨幣品質的Goldsmiths(金匠),以及發給計程車司機執照的Hackney Carriage Drivers(出租馬車駕駛)。

To join one of these guilds, you'll either need to meet the professional requirements, or for the charities like the Haberdashers, you'll need the approval of two existing members.
要加入這些公會,你要嘛得達到專業需求規定,要嘛對於像是Haberdashers這樣的慈善機構,你則需要兩位現有成員的批准。

If you meet none of the Livery Companies membership requirements, but you think you'll be a clever clogs and start your own Livery Company and grant yourself Freeman Status, tough luck because new Livery Companies need to be approved by...you guessed it, the Court of Aldermen.
如果你沒有符合任何一項倫敦金融城同業公會成員的規定,但你認為你會是個愛賣弄的聰明人,著手成立自己的同業公會,接著授與自己自由人的身分,太糟糕了,因為新的同業公會需要由...你猜對了,由參事議政廳批准。

But let's assume one way or another you get the official freeman status certificate, now you can finally run for Aldermen of a Ward...after the Lord Chancellor's Advisory Committee also approves of you.
但假設你想辦法得到了正式的自由人證書,現在你終於可以參選某區的市參議員...在法官大人的諮詢委員會批准你之後。

But that small barrier passed, you can win election as Aldermen in either one of the four wards, where people live, or the twenty-one wards where companies live.
但跨過這小障礙,你可以在居民居住的四個區內、或公司所在的二十一個區之一贏得市參議員選舉。

Once on the court of aldermen, to continue your path to the Mayor's Office in Guildhall, you must now be elected as sheriff, but this time it's the members of the Livery Companies who pick the sheriffs.
一旦你進入參事議政廳後,要繼續走向市政廳的市長辦公室之路,你現在需要選上郡長,但這會兒是由同業公會的成員來選出郡長。

So if the Livery Company members elect you as Sheriff, after you have successfully completed your term, then you can finally run for Mayor.
所以如果同業公會成員選你為郡長,在你成功地完成你的任期後,那麼你就可以參選市長。

But surprisingly, the residents of the City of London don't vote for the Mayor, our old friends on the Court of Aldermen do.
但令人訝異的是,倫敦金融市的居民並不投票選市長,我們在參議市政廳的老朋友才要選。

So in summary, once you get your freeman status from either the court of aldermen or the livery companies, and after your ward elected you as alderman, and then the livery companies elect you as sheriff, and after your term as sheriff ends, but while you're still on the court of aldermen, then you can run for Mayor.
所以總結來說,一旦你從參議市政廳或同業公會取得自由人身分,然後你的區選你為市參議員之後,接著同業公會選你為郡長,然後郡長的任期結束,但你仍在參議市政廳中,接著你才可以參選市長。

And assuming the other aldermen select you, you can finally take your place as The Right Honorable, The Lord Mayor of London...for one year, with no salary. And you have to cover your own expenses, which will be quite considerable as your new job consists mostly of making hundreds of speeches a year around the world promoting city business.
然後假設其他市參議員選你,你終於可以當上「正義高尚倫敦金融城市長大人」...任期一年,沒有薪水。你必須支付自己的開支,這可是很可觀的一筆錢,因為你的新工作大部分包括一年在全世界辦上數百場的演講來推廣倫敦金融城的事業。

But you do get that fancy hat, which just might make it all worthwhile.
但你的確會得到那頂花俏的帽子,這讓一切都值得了。

播放本句

登入使用學習功能

使用Email登入

HOPE English 播放器使用小提示

  • 功能簡介

    單句重覆、上一句、下一句:顧名思義,以句子為單位重覆播放,單句重覆鍵顯示橘色時為重覆播放狀態;顯示灰色時為正常播放狀態。按上一句鍵、下一句鍵時就會自動重覆播放該句。
    收錄佳句:點擊可增減想收藏的句子。

    中、英文字幕開關:中、英文字幕按鍵為綠色為開啟,灰色為關閉。鼓勵大家搞懂每一句的內容以後,關上字幕聽聽看,會發現自己好像在聽中文說故事一樣,會很有成就感喔!
    收錄單字:用滑鼠框選英文單字可以收藏不會的單字。
  • 分享
    如果您覺得本篇短片很有趣或很喜歡,在短片結束時有分享連結,可以分享給朋友一同欣賞,一起看YouTube學英文!

    或是您有收錄很優秀的句子時,也可以分享佳句給大家,一同看佳句學英文!