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「血型知多少」- Why Do We Have Different Blood Types?


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Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin. Whether it's the latest scary movie or some sparkly vampire book, blood seems to be everywhere—well, hopefully not real blood because that'd be gross. However, one thing that's not mentioned in a lot of these stories is blood types. What do all of these letters and plus signs mean anyway? Luckily, I'm here to help.
嗨!歡迎收看 Life Noggin。無論是最新的恐怖電影還是一些寫亮晶晶吸血鬼的書,血似乎無所不在--嗯,希望不是真的血,因為那樣就太噁心了。不過,有一件在這很多故事裡沒被提到的事就是血型。這些英文字母和加號到底是什麼意思?幸好,有我來這裡提供幫助。

For most of human history, we thought that all blood was the same. In fact, it wasn't until the 20th century that we discovered that we were wrong. When foreign objects like bacteria or viruses get into our body, your white blood cells produce antibodies, which are like your own personal army. These antibodies recognize the foreign object, which we call an antigen, and attack it. The antibody then attaches itself to the antigen, similar to a lock and key, which is what keeps you from getting sick. So there's no reason why any antigens should still be in your body, right? Well, wrong.
人類歷史上大多時候,我們都以為所有的血是一樣的。事實上,直到二十世紀我們才發現自己錯了。當像細菌和病毒那樣的外來物進到我們體內時,你的白血球會產生抗體,那就像你個人專屬的軍隊一樣。這些抗體會認出外來物,我們稱之為抗原,並加以攻擊。抗體接著會將自己附在抗原上,類似鎖和鑰匙,那讓你免於生病。所以你體內沒道理還有任何抗原,對吧?這個嘛,錯。

Your red blood cells naturally contain millions of antigens that your immune system doesn't react to, and the antigens that you have in those red blood cells determines your blood type. For example, if you have both A and B antigens, your blood type is AB. If you have neither A nor B antigens, then you are a type O. Additionally, if you have type A blood, then you have anti-B antibodies. This is why you have to be careful if you get a blood transfusion. If you receive someone else's blood that's a type B, your immune system will attack that blood thinking it's a foreign object.
你的紅血球天生就有數百萬種免疫系統不會作出反應的抗原,而在你紅血球中的抗原決定了你的血型。舉例來說,如果你同時有 A 和 B 抗原,你的血型就是 AB 型。如果你沒有 A 抗原也沒有 B 抗原,那你就是 O 型。此外,如果你有的是 A 型血,那麼你會有抗 B 抗體。這就是為什麼如果你接受輸血時要多加注意。如果你接受某個 B 型血的人的血液,你的免疫系統會以為那是外來異物而對血液作出攻擊。

Lastly, if you hear the word "positive" at the end of your blood type, you have an additional antigen called the Rh factor. A universal blood donor has none of these antigens, which makes someone with O negative blood very valuable.
最後,如果你在你的血型後面聽到「陽性」這個詞,你擁有額外一種叫 Rh 因子的抗原。全適供血者沒有這些抗原中的任何一種,這使得有負 O 型血的人十分寶貴。

So what's your blood type? Let us know. And if not, you should go ahead and ask us a question that you want answered because it might become a Life Noggin video. I'm Blocko. This has been Life Noggin. I will see you on Monday with a brand new video. Don't forget to keep on thinking.
那麼你是哪種血型?讓我們知道。如果不要的話,你應該去問我們一個你想知道答案的問題,因為那有可能變成一部 Life Noggin 影片喔。我是 Blocko。這是 Life Noggin 頻道。星期一我會帶一部全新影片和你們見面。別忘了持續動動腦。

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