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《HOPE English 希平方》服務條款關於個人資料收集與使用之規定

隱私權政策
上次更新日期:2014-12-30

希平方 為一英文學習平台,我們每天固定上傳優質且豐富的影片內容,讓您不但能以有趣的方式學習英文,還能增加內涵,豐富知識。我們非常注重您的隱私,以下說明為當您使用我們平台時,我們如何收集、使用、揭露、轉移及儲存你的資料。請您花一些時間熟讀我們的隱私權做法,我們歡迎您的任何疑問或意見,提供我們將產品、服務、內容、廣告做得更好。

本政策涵蓋的內容包括:希平方 如何處理蒐集或收到的個人資料。
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個人資料的收集與使用
當您註冊 希平方 平台時,我們會詢問您姓名、電子郵件、出生日期、職位、行業及個人興趣等資料。在您註冊完 希平方 帳號並登入我們的服務後,我們就能辨認您的身分,讓您使用更完整的服務,或參加相關宣傳、優惠及贈獎活動。希平方 也可能從商業夥伴或其他公司處取得您的個人資料,並將這些資料與 希平方 所擁有的您的個人資料相結合。

我們所收集的個人資料, 將用於通知您有關 希平方 最新產品公告、軟體更新,以及即將發生的事件,也可用以協助改進我們的服務。

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隱私權政策修訂
我們會不定時修正與變更《隱私權政策》,不會在未經您明確同意的情況下,縮減本《隱私權政策》賦予您的權利。隱私權政策變更時一律會在本頁發佈;如果屬於重大變更,我們會提供更明顯的通知 (包括某些服務會以電子郵件通知隱私權政策的變更)。我們還會將本《隱私權政策》的舊版加以封存,方便您回顧。

服務條款
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上次更新日期:2013-09-09

歡迎您加入看 ”希平方”
感謝您使用我們的產品和服務(以下簡稱「本服務」),本服務是由 希平方 所提供。
本服務條款訂立的目的,是為了保護會員以及所有使用者(以下稱會員)的權益,並構成會員與本服務提供者之間的契約,在使用者完成註冊手續前,應詳細閱讀本服務條款之全部條文,一旦您按下「註冊」按鈕,即表示您已知悉、並完全同意本服務條款的所有約定。如您是法律上之無行為能力人或限制行為能力人(如未滿二十歲之未成年人),則您在加入會員前,請將本服務條款交由您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)閱讀,並得到其同意,您才可註冊及使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務。當您開始使用 希平方 所提供之會員服務時,則表示您的法定代理人(如父母、輔助人或監護人)已經閱讀、了解並同意本服務條款。 我們可能會修改本條款或適用於本服務之任何額外條款,以(例如)反映法律之變更或本服務之變動。您應定期查閱本條款內容。這些條款如有修訂,我們會在本網頁發佈通知。變更不會回溯適用,並將於公布變更起十四天或更長時間後方始生效。不過,針對本服務新功能的變更,或基於法律理由而為之變更,將立即生效。如果您不同意本服務之修訂條款,則請停止使用該本服務。

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兒童及青少年之保護 兒童及青少年上網已經成為無可避免之趨勢,使用網際網路獲取知識更可以培養子女的成熟度與競爭能力。然而網路上的確存有不適宜兒童及青少年接受的訊息,例如色情與暴力的訊息,兒童及青少年有可能因此受到心靈與肉體上的傷害。因此,為確保兒童及青少年使用網路的安全,並避免隱私權受到侵犯,家長(或監護人)應先檢閱各該網站是否有保護個人資料的「隱私權政策」,再決定是否同意提出相關的個人資料;並應持續叮嚀兒童及青少年不可洩漏自己或家人的任何資料(包括姓名、地址、電話、電子郵件信箱、照片、信用卡號等)給任何人。

為了維護 希平方 網站安全,我們需要您的協助:

您承諾絕不為任何非法目的或以任何非法方式使用本服務,並承諾遵守中華民國相關法規及一切使用網際網路之國際慣例。您若係中華民國以外之使用者,並同意遵守所屬國家或地域之法令。您同意並保證不得利用本服務從事侵害他人權益或違法之行為,包括但不限於:
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上次更新日期:2013-09-16

希平方 內所有資料之著作權、所有權與智慧財產權,包括翻譯內容、程式與軟體均為 希平方 所有,須經希平方同意合法才得以使用。
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網站連結
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希平方 x ICRT

「Stephen Webb:外星人都去哪裡了?」- Where Are All the Aliens?


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I saw a UFO once. I was eight or nine, playing in the street with a friend who was a couple of years older, and we saw a featureless silver disc hovering over the houses. We watched it for a few seconds, and then it shot away incredibly quickly. Even as a kid, I got angry it was ignoring the laws of physics. We ran inside to tell the grown-ups, and they were skeptical—you'd be skeptical too, right? I got my own back a few years later: one of those grown-ups told me, "Last night I saw a flying saucer. I was coming out of the pub after a few drinks." I stopped him there. I said, "I can explain that sighting."

Psychologists have shown we can't trust our brains to tell the truth. It's easy to fool ourselves. I saw something, but what's more likely—that I saw an alien spacecraft, or that my brain misinterpreted the data my eyes were giving it? Ever since though I've wondered: Why don't we see flying saucers flitting around? At the very least, why don't we see life out there in the cosmos? It's a puzzle, and I've discussed it with dozens of experts from different disciplines over the past three decades. And there's no consensus. Frank Drake began searching for alien signals back in 1960—so far, nothing. And with each passing year, this nonobservation, this lack of evidence for any alien activity gets more puzzling because we should see them, shouldn't we?

The universe is 13.8 billion years old, give or take. If we represent the age of the universe by one year, then our species came into being about 12 minutes before midnight, 31st December. Western civilization has existed for a few seconds. Extraterrestrial civilizations could have started in the summer months. Imagine a summer civilization developing a level of technology more advanced than ours, but tech based on accepted physics though, I'm not talking wormholes or warp drives—whatever—just an extrapolation of the sort of tech that TED celebrates. That civilization could program self-replicating probes to visit every planetary system in the galaxy. If they launched the first probes just after midnight one August day, then before breakfast same day, they could have colonized the galaxy. Intergalactic colonization isn't much more difficult, it just takes longer. A civilization from any one of millions of galaxies could have colonized our galaxy.

Seems far-fetched? Maybe it is, but wouldn't aliens engage in some recognizable activity—put worldlets around a star to capture free sunlight, collaborate on a Wikipedia Galactica, or just shout out to the universe, "We're here"?

So where is everybody? It's a puzzle because we do expect these civilizations to exist, don't we? After all, there could be a trillion planets in the galaxy—maybe more.

You don't need any special knowledge to consider this question, and I've explored it with lots of people over the years. And I've found they often frame their thinking in terms of the barriers that would need to be cleared if a planet is to host a communicative civilization. And they usually identify four key barriers.

Habitability—that's the first barrier. We need a terrestrial planet in that just right "Goldilocks zone," where water flows as a liquid. They're out there. In 2016, astronomers confirmed there's a planet in the habitable zone of the closest star, Proxima Centauri—so close that Breakthrough Starshot project plans to send probes there. We'd become a starfaring species. But not all worlds are habitable. Some will be too close to a star and they'll fry, some will be too far away and they'll freeze.

Abiogenesis—the creation of life from nonlife—that's the second barrier. The basic building blocks of life aren't unique to Earth: amino acids have been found in comets, complex organic molecules in interstellar dust clouds, water in exoplanetary systems. The ingredients are there, we just don't know how they combine to create life, and presumably there will be worlds on which life doesn't start.

The development of technological civilization is a third barrier. Some say we already share our planet with alien intelligences. A 2011 study showed that elephants can cooperate to solve problems. A 2010 study showed that an octopus in captivity can recognize different humans. 2017 studies show that ravens can plan for future events—wonderful, clever creatures—but they can't contemplate the Breakthrough Starshot project, and if we vanished today, they wouldn't go on to implement Breakthrough Starshot—why should they? Evolution doesn't have space travel as an end goal. There will be worlds where life doesn't give rise to advanced technology.

Communication across space—that's a fourth barrier. Maybe advanced civilizations choose to explore inner space rather than outer space, or engineer at small distances rather than large. Or maybe they just don't want to risk an encounter with a potentially more advanced and hostile neighbor. There'll be worlds where, for whatever reason, civilizations either stay silent or don't spend long trying to communicate.

As for the height of the barriers, your guess is as good as anyone's. In my experience, when people sit down and do the math, they typically conclude there are thousands of civilizations in the galaxy. But then we're back to the puzzle: Where is everybody? By definition, UFOs—including the one I saw—are unidentified. We can't simply infer they're spacecraft. You can still have some fun playing with the idea aliens are here. Some say a summer civilization did colonize the galaxy and seeded Earth with life...others, that we're living in a cosmic wilderness preserve—a zoo. Yet others—that we're living in a simulation. Programmers just haven't revealed the aliens yet. Most of my colleagues though argue that E.T. is out there, we just need to keep looking, and this makes sense. Space is vast. Identifying a signal is hard, and we haven't been looking that long. Without doubt, we should spend more on the search. It's about understanding our place in the universe. It's too important a question to ignore.

But there's an obvious answer: we're alone. It's just us. There could be a trillion planets in the galaxy. Is it plausible we're the only creatures capable of contemplating this question? Well, yes, because in this context, we don't know whether a trillion is a big number. In 2000, Peter Ward and Don Brownlee proposed the Rare Earth idea. Remember those four barriers that people use to estimate the number of civilizations? Ward and Brownlee said there might be more.

Let's look at one possible barrier. It's a recent suggestion by David Waltham, a geophysicist. This is my very simplified version of Dave's much more sophisticated argument. We are able to be here now because Earth's previous inhabitants enjoyed four billion years of good weather—ups and downs but more or less clement. But long-term climate stability is strange, if only because astronomical influences can push a planet towards freezing or frying. There's a hint our moon has helped, and that's interesting because the prevailing theory is that the moon came into being when Theia, a body the size of Mars, crashed into a newly formed Earth. The outcome of that crash could have been a quite different Earth-Moon system. We ended up with a large moon and that permitted Earth to have both a stable axial tilt and a slow rotation rate. Both factors influence climate and the suggestion is that they've helped moderate climate change. Great for us, right? But Waltham showed that if the moon were just a few miles bigger, things would be different. Earth's spin axis would now wander chaotically. There'd be episodes of rapid climate change—not good for complex life. The moon is just the right size: big but not too big. A "Goldilocks" moon around a "Goldilocks" planet—a barrier perhaps.

You can imagine more barriers. For instance, simple cells came into being billions of years ago...but perhaps the development of complex life needed a series of unlikely events. Once life on Earth had access to multicellularity and sophisticated genetic structures, and sex, new opportunities opened up: animals became possible. But maybe it's the fate of many planets for life to settle at the level of simple cells.

Purely for the purposes of illustration, let me suggest four more barriers to add to the four that people said blocked the path to communicative civilization. Again, purely for the purposes of illustration, suppose there's a one-in-a-thousand chance of making it across each of the barriers. Of course there might be different ways of navigating the barriers, and some chances will be better than one in a thousand. Equally, there might be more barriers and some chances might be one in a million. Let's just see what happens in this picture.

If the galaxy contains a trillion planets, how many will host a civilization capable of contemplating like us projects such as Breakthrough Starshot? Habitability—right sort of planet around the right sort of star—the trillion becomes a billion. Stability—a climate that stays benign for eons—the billion becomes a million. Life must start—the million becomes a thousand. Complex life forms must arise—the thousand becomes one. Sophisticated tool use must develop—that's one planet in a thousand galaxies. To understand the universe, they'll have to develop the techniques of science and mathematics—that's one planet in a million galaxies. To reach the stars, they'll have to be social creatures, capable of discussing abstract concepts with each other using complex grammar—one planet in a billion galaxies. And they have to avoid disaster—not just self-inflicted but from the skies, too. That planet around Proxima Centauri, last year it got blasted by a flare. One planet in a trillion galaxies, just as in the visible universe.

I think we're alone. Those colleagues of mine who agree we're alone often see a barrier ahead—bioterror, global warming, war. A universe that's silent because technology itself forms the barrier to the development of a truly advanced civilization. Depressing, right?

I'm arguing the exact opposite. I grew up watching "Star Trek" and "Forbidden Planet," and I saw a UFO once, so this idea of cosmic loneliness I certainly find slightly wistful. But for me, the silence of the universe is shouting, "We're the creatures who got lucky." All barriers are behind us. We're the only species that's cleared them—the only species capable of determining its own destiny. And if we learn to appreciate how special our planet is, how important it is to look after our home and to find others, how incredibly fortunate we all are simply to be aware of the universe, humanity might survive for a while. And all those amazing things we dreamed aliens might have done in the past, that could be our future.

Thank you very much.

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