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「伊拉克危機簡史:ISIS、敘利亞、與戰爭」- Iraq Explained: ISIS, Syria and War


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Oh, dear! Just when you thought the Iraq problem was solved because you haven't heard about it for a while, everything's back to murders, chaos, and terror. What happened?
喔,天啊!正當你以為伊拉克的問題已經解決,因為你已經有一陣子沒聽到消息了,一切又回到謀殺、混亂、和恐慌。發生了什麼事?

In 2003, the U.S. invaded Iraq because of its alleged connections to terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. At the time Saddam Hussein, a brutal dictator, ruled the country. He was part of the Sunni minority and suppressed the Shia majority. Iraq was conquered fairly quickly, but the U.S. had no plan for the country. The until-then-suppressed Shia majority took over and began oppressing the Sunnis because suppressing other faiths proven to be such a good idea.
2003年,因其與恐怖行動以及大規模毀滅性武器間的可疑連結性,美國入侵伊拉克。當時海珊,一名慘無人道的獨裁者,統治那國家。他是遜尼少數派的一部分,並打壓什葉多數派。伊拉克很快就被攻下,但美國對此國家並無計畫。直到當時都被打壓的什葉多數派繼任,並開始壓迫遜尼派,因為打壓其他信仰證明是這麼一個好點子。

Unsurprisingly, a Sunni rebel uprising began, and terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda trickled into Iraq, and local forces, often former Sunni military, began fighting the U.S. troops and the newly-formed Iraqi state, peaking in a bloody civil war in 2006. Since then, people in Iraq have basically been segregated by religion.
不意外地,一場遜尼派起義開始了,而像是蓋達的恐怖份子組織緩緩滲入伊拉克,然後當地軍力,通常是前任的遜尼派軍隊,開始對抗美國軍隊及剛成立的伊拉克政府,在2006年一場血流成河的內戰達到高峰。自此後,伊拉克的人民基本上被依照宗教所隔離。

So in a tragic irony of history, the U.S. invasion led to the formation of the very terrorists the U.S. wanted to eliminate in the first place, because Iraq was now the perfect training ground for terrorism.
所以在歷史中那悲劇性的諷刺事件中,美國的入侵導致了美國原先想要消滅的那些恐怖分子集結起來,因為伊拉克現在是恐怖活動絕佳的訓練基地。

To understand this complicated conflict better, we need to understand the relationship between the two main branches of the Muslim faith: Shia and Sunni Islam. Sunnis make up about 80% of the Muslim world, and Shia about 20%. And the hardliners on both sides don't like each other very much.
要更加了解這個複雜的衝突,我們需要了解穆斯林信仰中兩個主要分支之間的關係:什葉和遜尼穆斯林。遜尼派組成大約穆斯林世界的百分之八十,而什葉派大約百分之二十。兩邊的強硬派份子都不是很喜歡彼此。

Saudi Arabia and Iran are the two most powerful players in the game of faiths. They both have no separation of state and religion, domestic problems, and a lot of oil money, and they support groups that fight the other religious orientation. And one of those terror organizations supported by Saudi Arabia was Islamic state in Iraq, or ISI for short.
沙烏地阿拉伯和伊朗是信仰之戰裡兩個最有力的對手。它們兩者都沒有國家和宗教的隔離政策、都有國內的問題、還有很多石油帶來的財富,它們也都支持反對其他宗教取向的組織。沙烏地阿拉伯所支持的其中一個恐怖組織就是伊拉克伊斯蘭國,或是縮寫 ISI。

In 2010, the Arab Spring happened and changed the whole situation in the Middle East. In Syria, dictator Bashar al-Assad didn't think much of resigning and started a gruesome civil war against his own people. The longer the war went on, the more foreign groups joined the fight, most of them for religious reasons and with a goal of building an Islamic state in the region.
在2010年,阿拉伯之春爆發,並改變了中東整個局勢。在敘利亞,獨裁者 Bashar al-Assad(敘國總統)並不想辭職,並發起一場對抗他自己人民的可怕內戰。戰爭持續越久、越多外國組織加入戰爭,他們大部分是為了宗教因素,並帶著於此區域建立伊斯蘭政府的目標。

And one of them was the infamous ISI, which now became the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria, or ISIS. They had fought in Iraq for years and had thousands of well-trained and fanatic soldiers. They already quasi-controlled parts of northern Iraq and were very determined to build their religious state. And they changed the game in Syria like no one expected.
他們之一就是惡名昭彰的 ISI,那現在成為伊拉克和敘利亞的伊斯蘭政府,或稱之為 ISIS。他們已在伊拉克戰爭多年,並有數千名訓練有素且狂熱的士兵。他們已經幾乎控制了部分伊拉克北部,且十分堅持要建立他們的宗教政府。他們出乎大眾意料改變了在敘利亞的局勢。

ISIS was so unbelievably violent and radical that soon there was a war with almost every other faction of the Syrian rebel armies. They attacked and killed members of other Muslim terrorist groups. In the territories they controlled they built Islamic state with rules so strict that even the hardliners of Al-Qaeda and Saudi Arabia were shocked and withdrew their support.
ISIS 是如此難以置信地暴力和極端,以致於很快就和幾乎每個敘利亞反抗軍的其他派系都掀起戰爭。他們攻擊並殺害其他穆斯林恐怖組織成員。在他們控制的領地中,他們建立伊斯蘭政府,其統治如此嚴苛,甚至連蓋達組織和沙烏地阿拉伯的強硬派份子都大吃一驚,並收回他們的支持。

ISIS has been accused of responsibility for multiple massacres against civilians, countless suicide bombings, the hostage taking of women and children, the executions of their prisoners, and beheadings—all kinds of medieval horrors we would rather not to have to illustrate. And this lovely gathering of human beings recently decided it was time to take more territory in Iraq.
ISIS 被指控要負責多次平民大屠殺、無數次的自殺炸彈攻擊、挾持婦孺作為人質、處決他們的囚犯、還有斬首行為--所有我們寧願不必描述出來的中世紀恐怖行為。這群人的可愛聚會最近決定是時候在伊拉克佔領更多領地了。

Since the U.S. left Iraq, the Shia prime minister Nouri al-Maliki has monopolized power and discriminated against Sunnis wherever possible. The government of Iraq is widely regarded as being corrupt, incapable, and it's certainly hated by a large part of its citizens.
自美國離開伊拉克後,什葉派的總理 Nouri al-Maliki 已經獨攬權力並竭盡所能四處排擠遜尼派。伊拉克政府被廣為認為貪腐、無能,且絕對受其大部分國民所痛恨。

The Iraqi army consisting of about 300,000 soldiers was created using 25 billion U.S. dollars in tax money, but it's not loyal to its government and has been withdrawing or completely disbanding, giving up city after city, because ISIS has announced that everyone who opposes them will be killed.
由大約三十萬名士兵所組成的伊拉克軍隊,是從稅金中花費兩百五十億美金所打造,但它對其政府並不忠誠,且已經撤退、或是完全解散,一個城市接著一個城市投降,因為 ISIS 已經宣布所有反對他們的人都將被殺害。

They have proven they mean business. By June, 2014, they'd conquered the big chunk of Iraq, including Mosul, Iraq's second largest city. They've stolen hundreds of millions from captured banks, making them the richest terror organization on earth. And they are constantly working on establishing a super medieval religious state.
他們已經證明他們是認真的。在2014年六月,他們已攻下伊拉克的一大部分,包括 Mosul,伊拉克第二大城。他們從俘虜的銀行偷取數億元,讓他們成為地球上最富有的恐怖組織。他們持續努力建立一個超級中世紀的宗教政府。

Iran and the U.S. are even considering working together to fight them. That's how gruesome the situation is. Events in Iraq show again that exploiting the people you've defeated in the war, denying them power, and living in a stake in the rebuilding of the country is just sowing the seeds of the next bat of violence.
伊朗和美國甚至在考慮要合作打擊他們。那就是情況有多麼可怕。在伊拉克的事件再次顯示了剝削你在戰爭中擊敗的人民、否決他們的權力、還有生活在重建國家的風險之中,只是在為下一波暴力行為埋下種子。

Somehow, we have to break the circle.
用某種方式,我們必須打破這輪迴。

  • 「一陣子、一下子」- For A While

    Oh, dear! Just when you thought the Iraq problem was solved because you haven't heard about it for a while...
    喔,天啊!正當你以為伊拉克的問題已經解決,因為你已經有一陣子沒聽到消息了...

  • 「接管、接手」- Take Over

    The until-then-suppressed Shia majority took over and began oppressing the Sunnis because suppressing other faiths proven to be such a good idea.
    直到當時都被打壓的什葉多數派繼任,並開始壓迫遜尼派,因為打壓其他信仰證明是這麼一個好點子。

  • 「原先、首先」- In The First Place

    So in a tragic irony of history, the U.S. invasion led to the formation of the very terrorists the U.S. wanted to eliminate in the first place...
    所以在歷史中那悲劇性的諷刺事件中,美國的入侵導致了美國原先想要消滅的那些恐怖分子集結起來...

  • 「認真的、不是開玩笑」- Mean Business

    They have proven they mean business.
    他們已經證明他們是認真的。

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