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「90 秒認識麻疹病毒」- Measles Outbreak: Everything You Need to Know in 90 Seconds


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Measles is one of the most contagious of all viruses. Ninety percent of people who are exposed and not vaccinated will get it. The virus lives in the nose and throat. It's spread by breathing, coughing, sneezing, or coming in close personal contact. It can hang suspended in the air or on a surface for up to two hours, meaning you can catch it by just walking into a room.
麻疹是所有病毒中最具傳染力的其中一種。百分之九十接觸到麻疹病毒且未接種疫苗的人會受到感染。這種病毒居住在鼻子和喉嚨內。它透過呼吸、咳嗽、打噴嚏或與人近距離接觸傳播。麻疹病毒可以在空氣中或物體表面懸浮長達兩小時,代表你只是走進一間房間就可能得到麻疹。

One person can infect as many as 18 others. The virus incubates for seven to 14 days. Then the first sign of measles begins: high fever, cough, runny noses, and red and watery eyes. After several days, a rash erupts. Red, flat spots appear on the face and then spread downward to the neck, body, arms, leg, and feet.
一個人可以傳染給多達十八人。這種病毒會潛伏七到十四天。接著麻疹的初期徵兆開始浮現:高燒、咳嗽、流鼻水、雙眼發紅泛淚。幾天後,疹子爆發。扁平狀紅點在臉部出現,接著向下擴散到頸部、身體、手臂、腿和腳。

An infected person is contagious from four days before to four days after the rash breaks out. Ear infections and diarrhea are common complications. More severe cases can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis, a swelling of the brain, which can cause permanent brain damage. One or two in every thousand children with measles will die.
患者在疹子爆發的前後四天具有傳染力。耳部感染和腹瀉是常見的併發症。病情更嚴重可能導致肺炎或腦炎,也就是大腦腫脹,那可能造成腦部永久損傷。每一千名得到麻疹的孩童就有一或二個會死亡。

But measles is preventable with a vaccine that is 97 percent effective. Measles vaccinations started in 1963 in the U.S., and the virus was declared eliminated in 2000. That means it no longer originates here.
不過有了有效率達百分之九十七的疫苗,麻疹是可以預防的。麻疹疫苗在美國於 1963 年開始施打,而 2000 年時病毒被宣告全面消滅。那表示它不再源自這裡。

Still, there are about 20 million cases a year worldwide. That means an unvaccinated person can bring it into the country while traveling, which is how a current outbreak may have started at Disneyland. The U.S. has seen 102 cases in at least 14 states in January of this year alone, a rate that has health officials on high alert.
儘管如此,全世界每年仍有約兩千萬起病例。那意味著沒打過疫苗的人可能在旅行時將病毒帶入國內,目前爆發的麻疹疫情可能就是這樣在迪士尼樂園開始的。美國光今年一月就在至少十四州內出現一百零二起病例,這是個讓衛生官員們高度戒備的比率。

  • 「接近於、至多」- Up To

    It can hang suspended in the air or on a surface for up to two hours, meaning you can catch it by just walking into a room.
    麻疹病毒可以在空氣中或物體表面懸浮長達兩小時,代表你只是走進一間房間就可能得到麻疹。

  • 「導致、引起」- Lead To

    More severe cases can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis, a swelling of the brain, which can cause permanent brain damage.
    病情更嚴重可能導致肺炎或腦炎,也就是大腦腫脹,那可能造成腦部永久損傷。

  • 「不再、再也不」- No Longer

    That means it no longer originates here.
    那表示它不再源自這裡。

  • 「至少」- At Least

    The U.S. has seen 102 cases in at least 14 states in January of this year alone, a rate that has health officials on high alert.
    美國光今年一月就在至少十四州內出現一百零二起病例,這是個讓衛生官員們高度戒備的比率。

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