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「你了解歐盟嗎?」- The European Union Explained


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Where is the European Union? Obviously here somewhere, but much like the European continent itself, which has an unclear boundary, the European Union also has some fuzzy edges to it.
歐盟在哪?顯然是在這裡某處,但很像歐洲大陸本身,有著不明確的分界線,歐盟同樣也有些模糊的邊界。

To start, the official members of the European Union are, in decreasing order of population: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Poland, Romania, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Sweden, Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, Slovakia, Finland, Ireland, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia, Estonia, Cyprus, Luxembourg, and Malta. The edges of the EU will probably continue to expand further out as there are other countries in various stages of trying to become a member.
一開始,歐盟的官方成員是,以人口遞減次序排列:德國、法國、聯合王國、義大利、西班牙、波蘭、羅馬尼亞、尼日蘭王國、希臘、比利時、葡萄牙、捷克共和國、匈牙利、瑞典、奧地利、保加利亞、丹麥、斯洛伐克、芬蘭、愛爾蘭、克羅埃西亞、立陶宛、拉脫維亞、斯洛維尼亞、愛沙尼亞、塞普勒斯、盧森堡和馬爾他。歐盟的邊界可能會持續向外擴張,因為有其他國家在試著成為成員的不同階段中。

How the EU works is hideously complicated and a story for another time, but for this video, you need know only three things: First, countries pay membership dues. And second, vote on the laws they all must follow. And third, citizens of member countries are automatically European Union citizens as well. This last means that if you're a citizen of any of these countries, you are free to live and work or retire in any of the others, which is nice especially if you think your country is too big, or too small, or too hot, or too cold. The European Union gives you options.
歐盟如何運作是令人髮指地複雜的,且是要另外再找時間講的故事,但關於這支影片,你只需要知道三件事:第一,國家繳納會費。第二,投票表決他們全都必須遵循的法律。第三,會員國的公民也自動成為歐盟公民。這最後一項表示如果你是這些任何一個國家的公民,你就能隨意在任何其他國家生活和工作或退休,這很棒,特別是如果你覺得你的國家太大、或太小、或太熱、或太冷。歐盟提供你選擇。

By the way, did you notice how all three of these statements have asterisks attached to this unhelpful footnote? Well, get used to it. Europe loves asterisks that add exceptions to complicated agreements. These three, for example, point us towards the first bit of border fuzziness with Norway, Iceland and little Liechtenstein, none of which are in the European Union, but if you're an EU citizen, you can live in these countries, and Norwegians, Icelanders or Liechtensteiner can live in yours.
對了,你有注意到這三個聲明全都有星號附加在這個沒用的註腳上嗎?這個嘛,習慣它吧。歐洲很愛在複雜協議中加上例外的星號。這三個,舉例來說,將我們指向挪威、冰島和小列支敦士登這第一小段的邊界模糊帶,其中沒有一個在歐盟裡,但如果你是歐盟公民,你可以住在這些國家裡,而且挪威人、冰島人或小列支敦士登人也可以住在你的國家。

Why? In exchange for the freedom of movement of people, they have to pay membership fees to the European Union, even though they aren't a part of it, and thus don't get a say in its laws that they still have to follow. This arrangement is the European Economic Area, and it sounds like a terrible deal, were it not for that asterisk, which grants EEA but not EU members a pass on some areas of law, notably farming and fishing, something a country like, say, Iceland might care quite a lot about running themselves.
為什麼?為了交換人們遷徙自由,他們必須支付會費給歐盟,即便他們並非其中一部分,因此無法就他們仍必須遵循的法律有發言機會。這協議是「歐洲經濟區」,它聽起來像是一份很糟糕的交易,要不是有星號就會更糟,這星號授與歐洲經濟區而不是歐盟成員在某些法律領域有通行資格,特別是農業和漁業,有些像是,比如說,冰島的國家可能會滿介意要自己管理的事。

Between the European Union and the European Economic Area, the continent looks mostly covered with the notable exception of Switzerland, who remains neutral and fiercely independent, except for her participation in the Schengen Area. If you're from a country that keeps her borders extremely clean and/or well-patrolled, the Schengen Area is a bit mind-blowing, because it's an agreement between countries to take a "meh" approach to borders.
在歐盟和歐洲經濟區之間,這塊大陸看起來大部分都包含在內,儘管有著瑞士的明顯例外,它保持中立且極度獨立,除了它在申根區的參與。如果你是從一個將邊界維持極度明確,以及/或巡邏嚴密的國家來的,申根區會有點驚人,因為這是國家間的一種協議,去對邊界採取「呿」態度。

In the Schengen Area, international boundaries look like this: no border officers or passport checks of any kind. You can walk from Lisbon to Tallinn without identification or the need to answer the question "business or pleasure?"
在申根區,跨國邊界看起來會像這樣:沒有邊境官或是任何一種護照檢查哨。你可以從里斯本走到塔林(愛沙尼亞首都)而不用身分證明或需要回答「商務還是旅遊?」的問題。

For Switzerland, being part of Schengen but not part of the European Union means that non-Swiss can check in anytime they like, but they can never stay. This kumbaya approach to borders isn't appreciated by everyone in the EU, most loudly, the United Kingdom and Ireland who argue that islands are different. Thus to get onto these fair isles, you'll need a passport and a good reason.
對瑞士來說,身為申根區一部分,但不是歐盟的一部分,代表非瑞士人可以在任何他們喜歡的時間登記入境,但他們永遠不能留下。這種對邊界「就過來吧」的態度並沒有受到歐盟每個人的欣賞,最大聲地,是爭論諸島嶼狀況不同的英國和愛爾蘭。因此為了要登上這些美麗的島嶼,你會需要護照和一個好理由。

Britannia's reluctance to get fully involved with the EU brings us to the next topic: money. The European Union has its own fancy currency, the Euro used by the majority, but not all of the European Union members. This economic union is called the Eurozone. And to join, a country must first reach certain financial goals, and lying about reaching those goals is certainly not something anyone would do.
大不列顛對完全參與歐盟的不情願將我們帶到下一個議題:錢。歐盟有自己的花俏貨幣,大多數人、但不是所有歐盟成員都使用的歐元。這個經濟聯盟稱作歐元區。要加入歐元區,一國首先需要達成特定的財務目標,而謊稱達成這些目標無疑地不是任何人會做的事。

Most of the non-Eurozone members, when they meet the goals, will ditch their local currency in favor of the Euro, but three of them: Denmark, Sweden and, of course, the United Kingdom have asterisks attached to the Euro sections of the treaty, giving them a permanent opt-out. And weirdly, four tiny European countries Andorra, San Marino, Monaco and Vatican City have an asterisk, giving them the exact reverse: the right to print and use Euros as their money, despite not being in the European Union at all.
大部分的非歐元區成員,當他們達成那些目標,就會丟棄他們當地貨幣支持歐元,但它們其中三個:丹麥、瑞典和,當然,英國有星號附加在協議中的歐元款項下,給了他們永久的選擇性退出。奇怪的是,四個歐洲小國家安道爾、聖馬利諾、摩納哥和梵蒂岡有星號,給了它們恰好相反的權力:印刷及使用歐元作為他們貨幣的權力,儘管根本不在歐盟裡。

So that's the big picture: there's the EU which makes all the rules, the Eurozone inside of it with a common currency, the European Economic Area outside of it, where people can move freely, and the selective Schengen, for countries that think borders just aren't worth the hassle.
所以那是大局面:有一個制定所有規則的歐盟、裡頭的歐元區有共同的貨幣、外面的歐洲經濟區裡人們可以自由地遷徙、還有選擇性的申根區,給那些認為邊界就是不值那些麻煩的國家。

As you can see, there's some strange overlap with these borders, but we're not done talking about complications by a long shot, once again, because empire. So Portugal and Spain have islands from their colonial days that they've never parted with. These are the Madeira and Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Azores well into the Atlantic. Because these islands are Spanish and Portuguese, they're part of the European Union as well.
就像你可以看到的,這些邊界有某種奇怪的重疊,但我們遠遠還沒講完那複雜性,又一次地,是因為帝國。所以葡萄牙和西班牙擁有源自於殖民時代、從未捨棄過的島嶼。這些是在非洲海岸外的馬得拉和加那利,還有遠在大西洋中的亞速爾群島。因為這些島嶼是屬於西班牙和葡萄牙的,他們也是歐盟的一部分。

Adding a few islands to the EU's borders isn't a big deal until you consider France, the queen of not-letting go. She still holds onto a bunch of islands in the Caribbean, Reunion off the coast of Madagascar and French Guiana in South America. As far as France is concerned, these are France, too, which single handedly extends the edge-to-edge distance of the European Union across a third of Earth's circumference.
加上幾個島嶼到歐盟的邊界並不是件大事,直到你考慮到法國,那永不放手的皇后。她仍緊握著一堆在加勒比海的島嶼、在馬達加斯加海岸外的留尼旺島、還有在南美的法屬圭亞那。就法國而言,這些也是法國,它以一己之力將歐盟邊界間的距離擴展到跨越地球的三分之一周長。

Collectively, these bits of France, Spain and Portugal are called the Outermost Regions, and they're the result of the simple answer to empire: just keep it.
總體來說,這些法國、西班牙和葡萄牙的小部分稱作外延地區,且他們是對帝國問題簡單解答的結果:就留著它吧。

On the other hand, there's the United Kingdom, the master of maintaining complicated relationships with her quasi-former lands, and she's by no means alone in this on such an empire-happy-continent. The Netherlands and Denmark and France, again, all have what the European Union calls Overseas Territories. They're not part of the European Union, instead they're a bottomless well of asterisks due to their complicated relationships with both the European Union and their associated countries, which makes it hard to say anything meaningful about them as a group but...
另一方面,還有英國,和其半前領地維持複雜關係的大師,而且於此方面她在這塊歡樂帝國大陸上絕不是孤獨的。尼日蘭和丹麥及法國,再一次的,全都有歐盟所稱的海外領土。它們不是歐盟的一部分,而是星號的無底之井,因為他們和歐盟以及和他們相關國家兩者的複雜關係,這讓以團體身分來說任何關於它們有意義的事變得很難,但是...

In general, European Union law doesn't apply to these places; though in general, the people who live there are European citizens; because in general, they have the citizenship of their associated country; so in general, they can live anywhere in the EU they want; but in general, other European Union citizens can't freely move to these territories, which makes these places a weird, semipermeable membrane of the European Union proper, and the final part we're going to talk about in detail, even though there are still many more one-off asterisks you might stumble upon, such as the Isle of Man, or those Spanish cities in North Africa; or Gibraltar, who pretends to be part of Southwest England sometimes; or that region in Greece, where it's totally legal to ban women; or Saba and friends, who are part of the Netherlands and so should be part of the EU, but aren't; or the Faeroe Islands upon which while citizens of Denmark live, they lose their EU citizenship, and on and on it goes.
通常,歐盟法並不適用於這些地方;雖然一般來說,住那裡的人是歐洲的公民;因為一般來說,他們有相關國家的公民身分;所以一般來說,他們可以住在歐盟任何他們想住的地方;但通常,其他歐盟公民無法自由地遷徙到這些領土,讓這些地方成為歐盟本身的怪異半透膜,以及我們要細講的最後一部分,即使還有更多你可能會無意中發現的僅供一國使用的星號,像是曼島,或是那些在北非的西班牙城市;或是直布羅陀,它有時假裝是英格蘭西南方的一部分,或是希臘裡面的那個區域,那裡禁止女性進入是完全合法的;或是薩巴和其同伴,它們是尼日蘭的一部分,所以應該也是歐盟的一部分,但它們不是;或是法羅群島,當丹麥公民住在島上時,他們失去歐盟公民身分,然後繼續繼續下去。

These asterisks almost never end, but this video must.
這些星號幾乎不會止息,但這支影片必須結束。

  • 「遠遠、全然、無論如何」- By A Long Shot

    As you can see, there's some strange overlap with these borders, but we're not done talking about complications by a long shot...
    就像你可以看到的,這些邊界有某種奇怪的重疊,但我們遠遠還沒講完那複雜性...

  • 「捨棄、與...分開」- Part With

    So Portugal and Spain have islands from their colonial days that they've never parted with.
    所以葡萄牙和西班牙擁有源自於殖民時代、從未捨棄過的島嶼。

  • 「遠在...」- Well Into

    These are the Madeira and Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Azores well into the Atlantic.
    這些是在非洲海岸外的馬得拉和加那利,還有遠在大西洋中的亞速爾群島。

  • 「就...而言」- As Far As...Be Concerned

    As far as France is concerned, these are France, too...
    就法國而言,這些也是法國...

  • 「絕不、毫不」- By No Means

    ...and she's by no means alone in this on such an empire-happy-continent.
    ...而且於此方面她在這塊歡樂帝國大陸上絕不是孤獨的。

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