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「科學破解迷思:想瘦就多運動...?」- The Science Is In: Exercise Isn't the Best Way to Lose Weight


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We have this idea that if we wanna lose weight, we join the gym on January 1, we start working out regularly, and eventually, we slim down. Well, here's some bad news:
我們有這種觀念,如果想要減重,那就在元旦加入健身房,我們開始規律運動,然後最後我們就會瘦下來了。這個嘛,這裡有些壞消息:

I read more than 60 studies on this, and it turns out exercise is actually pretty useless when it comes to weight loss.
我讀了超過六十篇關於運動減重的研究,結果顯示當提到減重時,運動其實滿沒效果的。

Dr. Kevin Hall at the National Institutes of Health has done some of the most important studies on exercise and weight loss.
國立衛生研究院的 Kevin Hall 博士對運動和減重做了其中一些極為重要的研究。

We need to rebrand exercise. Exercise isn't a weight-loss tool per se; it's excellent for health. It's probably the best single thing that you can do other than stopping smoking to improve your health, but don't look at it as a weight-loss tool.
我們需要重新打造運動的形象。運動本身並非減重工具;它對健康十分有益。它大概是除了戒菸以外,你能從事來改善健康的最佳活動了,不過不要把它當成減重工具。

Exercise will definitely help you live a longer, happier life—it's just not the best way to lose weight. And the reason has to do with how our bodies use energy.
運動絕對能幫你活得更久、更快樂--只是它不是減重的最佳方法。而這原因和我們身體消耗能量的方式有關。

You may not realize it, but physical activity is actually a tiny component of your daily energy burn.
你可能不知道,但身體活動其實只是你每日能量消耗當中的很小部份。

There are three main ways our bodies burn calories.
我們的身體有三種燃燒熱量的主要方式。

These include your resting metabolism, so that's how much energy your body burns just for its basic functioning, just to keep you alive, basically. The other part of energy expenditure is the thermic effect of food, and that's just how much energy is required to break food down in your body. The third part of energy expenditure is physical activity.
這些包含你的休息代謝,就是身體為了基本運作消耗的能量,基本上就只是讓你活著的能量。能量消耗的另一個部分是食物熱效應,那是食物在你體內分解所需的能量。能量消耗的第三個部份是身體活動。

For most people, physical activity—that's any movement you do—only accounts for about 10 to 30 percent of energy use.
對多數人來說,身體活動--也就是你做的任何動作--只佔能量消耗大約百分之十到三十而已。

So the vast majority of energy or calories you burn every day comes from your basal or resting metabolism, over which you have very little control.
所以你每天主要的能量或熱量消耗是來自你的基礎代謝或休息代謝,那是你不太能掌控的。

While 100 percent of your "calories in" are up to you, only about 30 percent of your "calories out" are in your control. One study found that if a 200-pound man ran for an hour, four days a week for a month, he'd lose about five pounds at most, assuming everything else stays the same. And everything else doesn't stay the same.
儘管「吃進多少卡路里」完全取決於你,但只有大概百分之三十的「熱量消耗」是你能控制的。一項研究發現,如果一個兩百磅重的男人一個月下來每週跑步四天、每次跑一小時,他最多可以減掉大約五磅,假設其它一切都不變的話。但其它一切並不會保持原狀。

Researchers have found we make all kinds of behavioral and physiological adaptations when we start increasing the amount of exercise we're getting every day.
研究者發現我們會做出各種行為和生理上的調整,在我們開始增加每日運動量時。

For one thing, exercise tends to make people hungry.
一方面,運動容易使人飢餓。

And I'm sure you know the feeling: You go for a spinning class in the morning, and then by the time you eat breakfast, you're so hungry you maybe double the size of the portion of oatmeal you'd normally eat.
我敢說你知道那種感覺:你在早上去上一堂飛輪課,然後到吃早餐時,你餓到可能會把正常吃的燕麥片量加倍。

There's also evidence to suggest that some people simply slow down after a workout.
還有證據顯示有些人在運動後就會慢下腳步。

So if you went running in the morning, you might be less inclined to take the stairs at work.
所以如果你早上去跑步,你去上班時可能就比較不想爬樓梯。

These are called compensatory behaviors. They're basically the various ways we unknowingly undermine our workouts.
這些被稱作「補償行為」。它們基本上是我們不知不覺破壞運動效果的各種方式。

Researchers have also discovered a phenomenon called metabolic compensation. As people start to slim down, their resting metabolism can slow down. So the amount of energy you burn while at rest is lower. That means that this bar might shrink as you start to lose weight.
研究者還發現一種叫「代謝補償」的現象。 當人們開始瘦下來時,他們的休息代謝可能會變慢。所以你休息時消耗的能量就比較少。那代表你開始減重時,代謝這一條可能會縮短。

There's still a lot of research to be done, but one study from 2012 is particularly interesting.
還有許多需要完成的研究,不過 2012 年的一項研究特別有意思。

They went out into the middle of the savanna in Tanzania to measure the energy burn among a group of hunter-gatherers called the Hadza.
他們去到坦尚尼亞大草原的正中央,計算一群被稱作 Hadza 的採獵者的能量消耗。

These are super-active, lean hunter-gatherers. They're not spending their days behind a computer at a desk.
這些是極為活躍、精瘦的採獵者。他們可不是整天坐在桌子前看電腦。

And what they found was shocking.
而他們發現的事情很驚人。

What we found is there was no difference at all. So even though the Hadza have a much more physically active lifestyle, they weren't burning any more calories every day than adults in the U.S. and Europe.
我們發現消耗的能量完全沒有差異。所以儘管 Hadza 採獵者們過著身體上較活躍的生活,他們每天卻沒有比在美國和歐洲的成年人燃燒更多卡路里。

Somehow, the energy they used for physical activity was being offset or conserved elsewhere. So, how do they stay slim? They don't overeat.
出於某種原因,他們用在身體活動的能量被抵銷或儲存在別的地方了。那麼,他們是怎麼保持纖瘦的呢?他們不吃過多。

We can undo the calories that we burn off in exercise pretty quickly. It would take about an hour of running to burn off a Big Mac and fries. You'd have to spend about an hour dancing pretty vigorously to burn off three glasses of wine you might drink with dinner; an hour of cycling really intensely on exercise bikes to burn off about two donuts.
我們可以很快就抵銷掉運動燃燒的熱量。燃燒一個大麥克和薯條的熱量得跑上一小時的步。你得花大約一小時頗為劇烈地舞動才能燃燒掉你可能在晚餐喝的三杯酒;在健身腳踏車上賣力踩一小時才能消耗掉大約兩個甜甜圈的熱量。

And that's why exercise is best seen as a healthy supplement for a strategy that's focused on food. But despite extremely high obesity rates in the U.S., government agencies continue to present exercise as a solution, as do companies with a real interest in making sure we keep eating and drinking their products.
那就是為什麼最好把運動當成一種對身體有益的輔助就好,用以輔佐以食物為重點的減重對策。但儘管美國有這麼高的肥胖率,政府機關還是繼續把運動表現得像個解決方法,從確保我們繼續吃喝他們產品來獲利的公司也是。

Since the 1920s, companies like Coca-Cola have been aligning themselves with the exercise message. The idea here is that you can drink all of these extra bottles of soda as long as you work out. But as we're seeing, it doesn't work like that. Actually, burning off those extra calories from a can of soda is really, really hard. We have an obesity problem in this country, and we shouldn't treat low physical activity and eating too many calories as equally responsible for it. Public health policymakers should really prioritize improving our food environment to help people make healthier choices about what they eat.
自 1920 年代起,一些像可口可樂的公司就把自己和運動這訊息擺在一起。這裡的概念是,只要你運動,你就可以喝下這所有額外的汽水。但如我們所見,事情並不是那樣的。事實上,要消耗一罐汽水產生的額外熱量非常、非常困難。我們這國家有肥胖問題,我們不應該把少運動和攝取太多熱量要為肥胖負的責任視為相同。公共衛生決策者真的該把改善食物環境列為優先,幫助人們對吃下肚的食物作出更健康的選擇。

It's not impossible to lose weight through exercise—it's just a lot harder. And we need to recognize how that works.
透過運動減重並非不可能--只是會難很多。而我們必須知道那是怎麼一回事。

If you do go to the gym and you burn all these calories, it takes you a long time to do so and you put in a great amount of effort. You can erase all of that in five minutes of eating a slice of pizza. It's—the relative magnitude is actually quite surprising, and most people don't fully appreciate that.
如果你真的去健身房然後燃燒掉這所有熱量,那樣做會花上你很長時間,而且你要投入許多精力。你可以在五分鐘內吃下一塊比薩就讓那一切努力化為烏有。這是--這相對的重要性其實頗為驚人,而大多數人不完全了解。

  • 「運動鍛鍊、健身」- Work Out

    ...we join the gym on January 1, we start working out regularly, and eventually, we slim down.
    ...那就在元旦加入健身房,我們開始規律運動,然後最後我們就會瘦下來了。

  • 「變瘦、變苗條」- Slim Down

    ...we join the gym on January 1, we start working out regularly, and eventually, we slim down.
    ...那就在元旦加入健身房,我們開始規律運動,然後最後我們就會瘦下來了。

  • 「結果是、最後發現」- Turn Out

    I read more than 60 studies on this, and it turns out exercise is actually pretty useless when it comes to weight loss.
    我讀了超過六十篇關於運動減重的研究,結果顯示當提到減重時,運動其實滿沒效果的。

  • 「當談到...時」- When It Comes To

    I read more than 60 studies on this, and it turns out exercise is actually pretty useless when it comes to weight loss.
    我讀了超過六十篇關於運動減重的研究,結果顯示當提到減重時,運動其實滿沒效果的。

  • 「除了」- Other Than

    It's probably the best single thing that you can do other than stopping smoking to improve your health...
    它大概是除了戒菸以外,你能從事來改善健康的最佳活動了...

  • 「和...有關」- Have To Do With

    And the reason has to do with how our bodies use energy.
    而這原因和我們身體消耗能量的方式有關。

  • 「(在數量上)佔」- Account For

    For most people, physical activity—that's any movement you do—only accounts for about 10 to 30 percent of energy use.
    對多數人來說,身體活動--也就是你做的任何動作--只佔能量消耗大約百分之十到三十而已。

  • 「其一、一方面」- For One Thing

    For one thing, exercise tends to make people hungry.
    一方面,運動容易使人飢餓。

  • 「只要」- As Long As

    The idea here is that you can drink all of these extra bottles of soda as long as you work out.
    這裡的概念是,只要你運動,你就可以喝下這所有額外的汽水。

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