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「至聖先師--孔子」- Confucius Biography


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Confucius was a Chinese philosopher of the Zhou dynasty, whose teachings of moral, social, political, and philosophical behavior and theory would later become the foundation of a system known as Confucianism.
孔子是中國周朝的一位思想家,他在道德、社會、政治、及哲學行為與理論的教誨,後來成為一個被稱做儒家的體系其根基。

The teachings of Confucius was studied and written about from the time of his death until the founding of the first Chinese empire in 221 B.C. His teachings included humanist towards others, ritual and etiquette, love of parents for their children and of children for their parents. An emphasis was placed on self-cultivation and skilled judgment, rather than a knowledge of rules.
孔子的講學從他辭世到西元前 221 年首個中國帝國建立期間被研究及寫下。他的教誨包括對他人的仁、儀俗及禮節、父母對子女的愛及子女對父母的愛。重點被放在自身修養和熟練的判斷力,而非對規則的了解。

His ethical ideals in teachings were also communicated through metaphor, innuendo, and anecdote or story. One of his most well-known teachings is—what you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others. Confucianism rose to prominence during the Han dynasty around 200 B.C. Many followers practiced his teachings as a religion. However, because it lacks a metaphysical aspect, most consider Confucianism as an influential social philosophy.
他教誨中的道德理想也透過隱喻、諷刺、軼事或故事來傳遞。其中一個他最廣為人知的教誨是--己所不欲,勿施於人。儒學在西元前約 200 年漢代時始達興盛。許多追隨者把他的教義當作一種宗教來實踐。然而,因為儒學缺乏一種純哲學的面向,大多數人視儒學為一個具影響力的社會學。

Confucius avidly promoted an autocratic social structure. In the years after his death, rulers looked to scholars of Confucianism for assistance in managing their empires and governing their people. Confucianism was appealing to rulers who found that its principles would essentially help society become self-regulating. These principles of behavior and their implementation are thought to have later influenced strong central rule, and the absence of rigidly enforced legal structure.
孔子熱烈地提倡一個專制的社會結構。在他逝世後,統治者靠著儒家學者來協助管理他們的帝國及統治他們的人民。對於那些發現其原則實質上會幫助社會變得自律的統治者而言,儒學很吸引人。這些關於行為和其施行的原則被認為後來影響了中央集權統治、及嚴格執法體系的缺乏。

Confucius spent his final years teaching his followers and communicating his wisdom.
These dialogues would eventually become a set of texts called the Five Classics.
孔子利用他的最後幾年教導他的弟子和散播他的智慧。這些對話最終變成一系列稱作《五經》的文本。

  • 「依賴、指望」- Look To

    In the years after his death, rulers looked to scholars of Confucianism for assistance in managing their empires and governing their people.
    在他逝世後,統治者靠著儒家學者來協助管理他們的帝國及統治他們的人民。

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