Have you or someone you love ever been in a tornado or car accident, experienced sexual or physical abuse, served in a war zone?
Most people have been through some kind of life-threatening or traumatic event, and it's common to have stress-related reactions after a trauma. But when symptoms last more than three months, and they're not getting better, it's time to get help.
Meet Sam. He recently returned from serving in Iraq. For many people, being in a crowded place like a baseball stadium or a busy grocery store feels comfortable, but not for Sam. What should be a nice night out—taking his wife, Tara, to a restaurant—isn't fun for him anymore. He can only handle it if he sits with his back to the wall where he has a good view of the exits, and even then, he's too on edge to really enjoy it.
見見 Sam。他最近剛結束在伊拉克的軍旅生活並返家。對多數人來說，進到棒球場或人來人往的超商雜貨店這類擁擠的地方是很自在的，但 Sam 卻不是如此。原本這會是很棒的夜晚－－帶著太太 Tara 到餐廳用餐－－但現在對他來說一點也不有趣。他要背對牆壁，能清楚看得見逃生口，才能撐得下去繼續用餐，即便如此，他還是緊張得無法好好享用。
At home, things aren't the way they used to be, either. His sleep is restless at best. And some nights, Tara isn't sure if Sam comes to bed at all. Sam seems to have a short fuse these days. And sometimes he snaps at Tara over tiny misunderstandings.
即使在家裡，情況也變得和平時不同了。他輾轉反側，但這還算是比較好的情況。有些夜晚，Tara 甚至不確定 Sam 到底有沒有上床。最近 Sam 似乎變得十分易怒。而有時還會因為小誤會對 Tara 動怒。
What he and Tara never talk about is the trauma he experienced when he was deployed. He's never mentioned the guilt. The weight he carries around, wishing he could have done more to prevent what happened. Instead, he's turned inward, pulling away from family and friends.
他和 Tara 從來沒談過的是他從軍期間經歷的創傷。他從沒提過那份歉疚感。他背負著那份重擔，希望他當初能做更多，就能避免事情發生。他反而變得越來越內向，遠離家人和朋友。
Tara tried to give him some space, but after months passing without change, she really started to worry. She was the one to finally say what they were both thinking: It's time to get help.
That's when Sam finally decided to take action. He reached out to a doctor who told him about PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Sam's symptoms were getting in the way of enjoying his life. Reexperiencing, hyperarousal, feeling worse about yourself or the world, and avoidance are the four types of symptoms people with PTSD have. Sam's doctor explained each.
那時 Sam 終於決定要採取行動。他向一個醫生尋求協助，醫生帶他認識 PTSD 這個疾病，也就是「創傷後壓力症候群」。Sam 的症狀讓他無法好好享受生活。創傷經驗再體驗、過度警覺、對自身或世界抱持負面情緒，以及逃避狀態是 PTSD 的四種症狀。Sam 的醫生一一解釋每種症狀。
The first is reliving the event, or reexperiencing. This is often an unwanted memory or even a flashback, where you feel like you're right back into the situation again. Seeing, hearing, or even smelling something that reminds you of the trauma can trigger these. Nightmares where you relive parts of the event in your sleep are common, too.
The second is avoidance: staying away from situations that remind you of the trauma. That's why Sam tries to avoid thinking about painful memories altogether. He pours himself into his work, or uses alcohol to keep his mind from going back to the trauma.
第二個症狀是逃避狀態：遠離讓你想起創傷的情況。這就是為什麼 Sam 想完全避免想起那些痛苦回憶。他將自己投入工作中，或用酒精麻痺自己，避免自己的思緒重回創傷經驗。
The third is feeling worse about yourself or the world since the trauma. You might feel overwhelming guilt, like Sam, or not trust anyone. You just might not be able to feel happy, even when you are around people you love.
第三個症狀是經歷創傷後，就對自我和世界抱持負面情緒。你可能會有難以抑制的罪惡感，就像 Sam 一樣，或是不信任他人。你可能就是無法感到開心，即使你身旁都是你愛的人。
The fourth type of symptom is sudden rushes of anger, irritability, feeling jittery, always on alert, always on the lookout for danger. This is called hyperarousal, and loud noises or a driver cutting in front of you can be all it takes to set you off.
If you recognize any of these symptoms of PTSD in yourself or someone you love, don't wait. See your doctor to find out if it could be PTSD. Just like Sam and Tara found, there is hope. You don't have to live with the symptoms of PTSD forever. Effective treatments are available.
如果你意識到自己或你所愛的人有任何創傷後壓力症候群的症狀，就別再耽擱了。去看醫生，看看是否可能是 PTSD。就像 Sam 和 Tara 發現的，還是有希望。你不需要和 PTSD 的症狀共處一輩子。有效治療是可尋的。
- 「緊張、擔憂」- On Edge
He can only handle it if he sits with his back to the wall where he has a good view of the exits, and even then, he's too on edge to really enjoy it.
- 「容易動怒、脾氣暴躁」- Have A Short Fuse
Sam seems to have a short fuse these days.
最近 Sam 似乎變得十分易怒。
- 「阻礙、阻擋」- Get In The Way Of
Sam's symptoms were getting in the way of enjoying his life.
- 「對...保持警惕、提防」- On The Lookout For
The fourth type of symptom is sudden rushes of anger, irritability, feeling jittery, always on alert, always on the lookout for danger.