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「達文西:〈最後的晚餐〉」- Leonardo, Last Supper, 1495-98


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We're in Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, looking at Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper.
我們在米蘭的聖瑪利亞感恩修道院,欣賞李奧納多‧達文西的〈最後的晚餐〉。

And we're in the room where the monks would eat, their refectory. And so several times a day, the monks would come in here, eat silently, and be able to look up at Leonardo's Last Supper.
我們在修道士用餐的房間裡,他們的食堂。所以一天中有幾次,修道士們會進來這裡,靜靜地用餐,還能夠抬頭看看李奧納多的〈最後的晚餐〉。

It's an ideal place, of course, for this particular subject, and not an uncommon one.
這是個理想的地點,當然,對於這幅特殊的畫作來說,但也不是個不常見的地點。

So let's talk about the story. At the last supper, Christ says, "One of you will betray me," to his twelve apostles.
來談談那段故事。在最後的晚餐中,耶穌說對他的十二門徒說:「你們其中一人將會背叛我。」

And one of the ways that this painting is often read is as a reaction to that moment. That is, this is not the moment when Christ utters that, but the moment after, when the reaction takes place. These are his closest followers. And so this is terribly shocking. And so what we see is this incredible set of reactions from the apostles around the table.
這幅畫作通常被解讀的方式之一,是被看做那個瞬間的反應。也就是說,這不是在耶穌說出那段話的當下,而是說完的瞬間,當反應發生的時候。這些是他最親近的追隨者。所以這是非常震驚的。所以我們看到的是餐桌周圍門徒反應中的這組難以置信的反應。

So that's one way we can understand the fresco, but there's another aspect of the narrative.
所以那是我們可以理解這幅壁畫的一種方式,但那故事還有另一種面向。

Which is, in some ways, even more important. Christ, you can see, is reaching towards both a glass of wine and towards bread. And this is the institution of the Sacrament.
那在某方面來說甚至更加重要。你可以看到,耶穌正伸手朝向一杯酒和麵包。而這是那聖餐的習俗。

The Sacrament of the Eucharist, we might know it as Holy Communion, where Christ says, "Take this bread, for this is my body. Take this wine, for this is my blood. And remember me." And you can see that he reaches out toward the bread and the wine.
聖餐禮中的聖餐,我們也許以「聖餐式」之名認識這儀式,在這裡耶穌說:「拿這塊麵包吃,這是我的身體。拿這杯酒喝,這是我的血。並記得我。」你可以看到他伸手朝向麵包和酒。

But what's interesting is that Christ's hand is widely spread. So it seems as if he's reaching towards the wine, but at the same time, he's reaching toward a bowl. And at the same moment, Judas is reaching towards that same bowl.
但有趣的是耶穌的手張的大大的。所以那看似他好像伸手朝向酒,但同時,他也伸手朝向一個碗。在同一時刻,猶大也伸手朝向同一個碗。

Judas is the one who's going to betray Christ. He's been paid 30 pieces of silver by the Romans. And you can see, he's grasped that bag of silver in his right hand, as he pulls away from Christ, his face cast in shadow. But he's pulling away at the same time that he's still reaching out to the bowl.
猶大就是那個將要背叛耶穌的人。羅馬人付給他三十枚銀幣。你可以看見,他的右手抓著那袋銀幣,當他離開耶穌時,他的臉投向陰影。但他在離開的同時他仍在伸手抓碗。

And that's one of the ways that Christ identifies who will betray him, the person who shares, who dips with him in that bowl. It's interesting, because the history of the art history about this painting is really about scholars arguing about what moment this is.
那是耶穌辨別誰將會背叛他的其中一種方式,那分享的人、那和他一起在那碗沾食的人。這很有趣,因為關於這幅畫作的藝術史中的歷史,其實都是關於學者爭論這是哪一個時刻。

But I think there are all of these moments here. And the apostles could, just as easily, be understood as reacting to Christ's words, "one of you will betray me," as they could to Christ saying, "Take the bread, for this is my body and take the wine, for this is my blood." So, Leonardo tells us several moments in this story and, at the same time, gives us a sense of the divine, eternal importance of this story.
但我認為這裡有所有這些時刻。那些門徒在對耶穌說的話做出反應時,也就是「你們其中一個將會背叛我」,這時可以很容易被看穿,就如同他們對耶穌說:「拿這塊麵包吃,這是我的身體。拿這杯酒喝,這是我的血。」時所做的反應一樣容易看穿。所以,李奧納多告訴我們這段故事中的許多片刻,同時,給了我們這段故事中的神聖、永恆的重要性之感。

We would never mistake this for 13 people having dinner. We know this is the last supper. We know that this is an important moment without any of the obvious symbols of the divine that we would have in the early Renaissance, like the halo.
我們永遠不會將此畫誤認為十三個人在吃晚餐。我們知道這是最後的晚餐。我們不用任何早期文藝復興會有的任何明顯的神聖象徵,像是光環,來認出這是個重要的時刻。

The figures themselves are monumental in this space, and too crowded for that table, creating a kind of energy, a kind of chaos that surrounds the perfection, the solemnity, the geometry of Christ.
那些人物他們自己在這空間中是具紀念性的,對那張桌子來說太過擁擠,創造出一種能量、一種環繞那完美度、那莊嚴感、以及耶穌身上幾何學的那種混亂。

That's right. Christ forms an equilateral triangle. His head is in the center of a circle. The window that frames his head reads as a halo. There's that calm center, and then human beings with all of their faults, and fears, and worries, around that divine center.
沒錯。耶穌形成了一個等邊三角形。他的頭位在圓心。那框住他的頭的窗戶解讀為光環。這裡是那沉著的中心,然後人類帶著他們所有過錯、恐懼、和擔憂,環繞那神聖中心的四周。

This is Leonardo da Vinci, who is thinking about mathematics. He's thinking about science. He's thinking about the integration of all of these things.
這是李奧納多‧達文西,他正在思考數學。他正在思考科學。他正在思考所有這些事物的統整。

If we look at earlier images of the Last Supper, there's lots of room at the table, there's lots of decorations in the room. What Leonardo does is he simplifies everything and focuses us on those figures and their gestures. And by making it so there's no room behind the table, the figures take up so much space, it's separating our world from the world of Christ and the apostles. There's no way for us to enter that space.
如果我們觀看〈最後的晚餐〉較早期的圖像,在桌子上有很多空間、在屋子裡有很多裝飾。李奧納多做的事是他簡化一切,讓我們專注在那些人物以及他們的姿勢上。藉由這麼做,好讓餐桌後方沒有空間,那些人物佔據這麼多空間,那正讓我們的世界與耶穌及其門徒的世界分隔開來。我們沒有辦法進入那空間。

In fact, there's no way for them to move into our space. There really is this demarcation.
事實上,他們也沒有辦法移動進入我們的空間。那裡確實有這種分界。

In versions of the Last Supper that Leonardo would have seen in Florence, Judas is sitting on the opposite side of the table. And by putting Judas with the other apostles, he does use the table as a barrier between our world and the world of the apostles.
在李奧納多會在佛羅倫斯看到的〈最後的晚餐〉版本,猶大正坐在餐桌的另一邊。藉由將猶大和其他門徒放一起,他確實使用那張桌子作為我們世界及門徒世界之間的界線。

Let's look at those faces for just a moment. Christ is so serene, his eyes are down, one hand is up, one hand is down. To his right is a group of three, and there is Judas, who's facing away from us in shadow. His neck is turned, reminding us that that night he will hang himself.
來看一下那些臉龐。耶穌如此安詳,他的雙眼低垂、一手向上、一手向下。在他的右方是三人組,有猶大,他的臉龐在陰影之下轉向別處撇開我們。他的脖子轉向,使我們想起那晚他將會上吊自盡。

Now as he pulls away, Saint Peter, Christ's protector, rushes in. He's got a knife that he holds around his back. And he comes in, seeming to say almost, "Who is it? I need to defend you."
現在當他逃離時,聖彼得,耶穌的保護者,衝了進來。他有一把握在背後的刀。然後他進來,幾乎好像是說:「是哪一個?我要保護你。」

The third figure in that group with Judas and Peter would be Saint John, who looks very resigned and closes his eyes. And that's the tradition in paintings of the Last Supper. My favorite three figures are the figures on the far right. Leonardo was very interested in using the body to reveal the soul, to reveal one's internal nature. But Leonardo's creating these four groups of three, that idea of knitting the figures together, overlapping them with one another, creating all this drama.
那有猶大和彼得的三人組中第三個人物是聖約翰,他看起來非常認命,且閉上他的雙眼。那是〈最後的晚餐〉畫作中的傳統。我最喜歡的三個人物是在最右邊的人物。李奧納多對於使用身體來展現靈魂、展現一個人的內在天性很感興趣。但李奧納多正創造出這四群三人組、那將角色交織在一起的靈感、讓他們彼此交疊、創造出這所有戲劇性。

And creating tensions and contrast between the emotional responses of all these figures. There's that incredible grouping of Thomas pointing upward.
還有在所有這些角色的情緒反應之間創造出緊張情緒和對比。還有多馬向上指的那難以置信的分組方式。

As if to say, "Is this something that is ordained by God? Is this God's plan, that one of us should betray you?"
好像在說:「這是某個上帝命令的事嗎?我們之一會背叛你,這是上帝的計畫嗎?」

But of course, that finger also foreshadows him actually proving Christ's resurrection by plunging that finger into Christ's wound. And then we have Philip and James the Major. And they're in opposition, one throwing his arms out, one bringing his hands together.
但當然,那根手指同樣也預示了他確實會藉由將那根手指戳進耶穌的傷口,來證明耶穌的復活。然後我們有腓力和雅各。他們動作相反,一個將手臂伸出、一個將手抱在一起。

And if we were to compare this with earlier Last Suppers, we would see the way that the figures remained very separate from one another. And here, that idea of unified composition, which is so characteristic of the High Renaissance. But what I sense here, more than anything, is the divinity of Christ, here, in the center; his calm, the way that all of those perspective lines bringing us toward him.
如果我們要將此畫和稍早的〈最後的晚餐〉做比較,我們會看到那些角色和彼此間離得很開的方式。這裡,形成一體組合的那概念,這如此是文藝復興全盛期的特色。但我在這裡感受到的,比什麼都還多的,是耶穌的神威,這裡,在中心;他的沉著、所有那些透視線帶領我們朝向他的方式。

It's interesting, because that perspective that the artist is rendering is slightly at odds with the perspective, as we see it, from down here on the floor. That is, we would need to be close to Christ's level to see this painting in a perspective-correct manner. And it's interesting. In a sense, it elevates us, as we look at this painting.
這很有趣,如同我們所見,因為那藝術家所要描繪的透視圖效果和我們從下方地面往上看的透視圖效果有點不一致。也就是,我們會需要接近耶穌的高度來以修正透視的方式來觀看這畫。而這很有趣。在某種程度上,它提升了我們,當我們觀賞這幅畫時。

Right, we would have to be, what, about 10 or 15 feet off the floor to have the perspective work exactly perfectly. So we have this divine presence in the center, indicated in all of these different ways. Now, keep in mind, we're not saying this is the way that people would have seen it, in 1498.
沒錯,我們會需要,多少,大約離地面10或15英呎(3到4.5公尺)來讓這透視效果真正完美運作。所以我們在中央有這個神聖的存在,在所有這些不同的方式中表明出來。現在,記得,我們並不是在說人們在1498年會觀賞它的方式。

The painting is in terrible condition, in part, because Leonardo experimented with a combination of oil paint and tempera in an environment where fresco would be traditionally used. And the painting began to deteriorate soon after it was completed.
這幅畫處於很糟糕的狀態,一方面,因為李奧納多在一個傳統上會使用壁畫的環境中,用油彩和蛋彩的組合做實驗。這畫作在它完成不久後就開始劣化。

Right, unlike a traditional fresco, which is painted on wet plaster, Leonardo painted on dry plaster. And the paint never really adhered to the wall. So luckily for us, the Last Supper has been conserved.
是的,不像傳統的壁畫,那是在濕石膏上繪製的,李奧納多在乾石膏上作畫。所以那顏料從未真正附著在牆上。所以對我們來說很幸運,〈最後的晚餐〉被保存了下來。

And so in some ways, this is a perfect representation of the High Renaissance. It is finding a way of creating a sense of the eternal, a sense of the perfect, but within the chaos that is the human experience.
所以在某些方面來說,這是文藝復興全盛期很完美的代表。是在找出一個創造永恆感、完美感的方式,但是在混亂之中,那就是人們的體驗。

That's right. Uniting the earthly and the divine.
沒錯。使塵世和神性結合。

  • 「離開、脫身」- Pull Away

    And you can see, he's grasped that bag of silver in his right hand, as he pulls away from Christ, his face cast in shadow.
    你可以看見,他的右手抓著那袋銀幣,當他離開耶穌時,他的臉投向陰影。

  • 「誤認」- Mistake For

    We would never mistake this for 13 people having dinner. We know this is the last supper.
    我們永遠不會將此畫誤認為十三個人在吃晚餐。我們知道這是最後的晚餐。

  • 「佔據、佔去」- Take Up

    And by making it so there's no room behind the table, the figures take up so much space...
    藉由這麼做,好讓餐桌後方沒有空間,那些人物佔據這麼多空間...

  • 「與...不一致、與...爭執」- At Odds With

    ...because that perspective that the artist is rendering is slightly at odds with the perspective, as we see it, from down here on the floor.
    ...如同我們所見,因為那藝術家所要描繪的透視圖效果和我們從下方地面往上看的透視圖效果有點不一致。

  • 「記住」- Keep In Mind

    Now, keep in mind, we're not saying this is the way that people would have seen it, in 1498.
    現在,記得,我們並不是在說人們在1498年會觀賞它的方式。

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