Measles is one of the most contagious of all viruses. Ninety percent of people who are exposed and not vaccinated will get it. The virus lives in the nose and throat. It's spread by breathing, coughing, sneezing, or coming in close personal contact. It can hang suspended in the air or on a surface for up to two hours, meaning you can catch it by just walking into a room.
One person can infect as many as 18 others. The virus incubates for seven to 14 days. Then the first sign of measles begins: high fever, cough, runny noses, and red and watery eyes. After several days, a rash erupts. Red, flat spots appear on the face and then spread downward to the neck, body, arms, leg, and feet.
An infected person is contagious from four days before to four days after the rash breaks out. Ear infections and diarrhea are common complications. More severe cases can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis, a swelling of the brain, which can cause permanent brain damage. One or two in every thousand children with measles will die.
But measles is preventable with a vaccine that is 97 percent effective. Measles vaccinations started in 1963 in the U.S., and the virus was declared eliminated in 2000. That means it no longer originates here.
不過有了有效率達百分之九十七的疫苗，麻疹是可以預防的。麻疹疫苗在美國於 1963 年開始施打，而 2000 年時病毒被宣告全面消滅。那表示它不再源自這裡。
Still, there are about 20 million cases a year worldwide. That means an unvaccinated person can bring it into the country while traveling, which is how a current outbreak may have started at Disneyland. The U.S. has seen 102 cases in at least 14 states in January of this year alone, a rate that has health officials on high alert.
- 「接近於、至多」- Up To
It can hang suspended in the air or on a surface for up to two hours, meaning you can catch it by just walking into a room.
- 「導致、引起」- Lead To
More severe cases can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis, a swelling of the brain, which can cause permanent brain damage.
- 「不再、再也不」- No Longer
That means it no longer originates here.
- 「至少」- At Least
The U.S. has seen 102 cases in at least 14 states in January of this year alone, a rate that has health officials on high alert.