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「為什麼想拿高分,讀十小時不如讀半小時?科學解釋給你聽」- The 9 BEST Scientific Study Tips


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Time for school! And it's no surprise that many of us are determined to study smarter instead of longer, but which study tips and tricks actually work scientifically and can help you get those perfect grades?
上學囉!我們許多人想當然都決定要更聰明學習而不是花更多時間學習,不過哪些學習技巧和祕訣就科學角度來看真的行得通,而且可以幫助你拿到理想分數呢?

First up, research shows that study sessions are most effective in small, short chunks. Instead of cramming in a 10-hour study session, it's much more effective to spread it out into 20-, 30-minute sessions over a few weeks. This is because your brain is better at encoding information into the synapses in short repeated sessions as opposed to one large one. And this is why even learning different skills, whether it's swimming, tennis, or a singing lesson, often follows this same format.
首先,研究顯示學習分成短小片段最有效率。與其一次死背硬記十小時,打散成幾星期內一次學習二、三十分鐘反而有效許多。這是因為你的大腦比較能在一次又一次的片段學習期間將資訊編譯進神經突觸中,相較一次讀書讀很長一段時間。而這就是為什麼連學不同技能,不管是游泳、網球還是唱歌,那常常都遵循同樣的安排。

And while cramming and pulling all-nighters may be a ritual, it turns out that this is linked to the lowest grades. After prolonged nocturnal study sessions, reasoning and memory may be negatively affected for up to four whole days. Instead, setting up specific times in a day or during the week just to study primes your brain by creating a routine, and over time, studying actually becomes easier as your brain is trained to learn in those moments.
儘管死背和熬夜可能是習慣了,但結果卻發現這和低分有關。在長時間挑燈夜讀後,判斷力和記憶力可能會有多達四天受到不良影響。相反地,設定一天或一個禮拜中有特定的學習專屬時段,那能藉由培養習慣來讓大腦準備就緒,而隨著時間過去,學習真的會變得比較輕鬆,因為你的大腦已經被訓練在那些時段吸收知識了。

And while many of us spend hours passively rereading our notes or highlighting a textbook, studies have shown this to be ineffective. It doesn't improve your understanding of topics, nor does it link key concepts together. It can even be detrimental as it draws your attention to less important information. Flashcards, on the other hand, are proven to be excellent memory reinforcement tools, whether during your scheduled study times or during off times like a bus ride home.
雖然我們很多人都會花好幾個小時消極地重讀筆記或在課本上畫重點,研究卻顯示這並沒有用。那樣做並不會改善你對學習主題的理解,也不會將重要觀念連結在一起。那樣甚至會造成不利影響,因為你的注意力會被吸引到比較不重要的資訊上。另一方面,字卡被證實是很好的強化記憶工具,不管是在計劃的學習時間還是搭公車回家那樣的空檔中使用。

It also helps to have a specific goal for each study session. Instead of aimlessly studying, pick one aspect you'll focus on, whether it's balancing chemical equations or learning how to conjugate French verbs. If you can't explain it simply, then you don't understand it well enough. In studies where individuals were asked to learn a passage, and then half were told that they would be tested on the material, while the other half were told they would have to teach it to other students, participants expecting to teach it did much better at understanding the main points. When you're expecting to teach, your brain organizes the information in a more logical, coherent structure.
每次學習時都立下特定目標也有幫助。與其無頭蒼蠅似地讀書,挑選一個你要專攻的部分,不管是平衡化學式還是學習如何列舉法語的動詞變化。如果你不能簡單明瞭地解釋一個主題,那你就不夠了解它。在幾個研究中,人們被要求記住一段文章,接著有一半的人被告知他們將會接受有關那段文章的考試,而另一半的人則被告知他們要教其他學生那段文章,預期要教那段文章的受測者在理解重點上表現出色許多。當你預期要教人時,你的大腦會以更有邏輯、更有條理的架構來組織資訊。

Of course, practice, practice, practice. Not only do practice tests put your brain in the environment, but even if you make mistakes, they help identify gaps in your knowledge. Practice tests have also been shown to increase confidence, thereby leading to better performance.
當然啦,練習、練習再練習。練習測驗不僅能讓你的大腦處在學習狀態下,就算你犯了錯誤,那也有助發現你學到的內容的出入。練習測驗也被指出能增加自信,因而產生更好的表現。

So, where should you be studying? Research shows that having a designated sacred spot for study that's well equipped with every tool you might need is best. Just like setting times, this primes your brain for studying.
那麼,你應該在哪讀書呢?研究顯示有一個指定的固定學習場所,裡面備妥每樣你可能會需要的工具,那樣是最棒的。就像設定時段一樣,這也能讓你的大腦準備好學習。

Have an awesome study playlist? Not so fast. While some studies have shown that certain types of classical music can help improve concentration, a recent study has shown that learning with rhythmic background noise can be detrimental to focus, and those not using music fared much better. And if you haven't already, put away your phone! This is a no-brainer, but your text and social media notifications severely decrease concentration.
有一個超棒的讀書音樂播放清單呢?先別急。儘管有些研究顯示特定種類的古典樂有助增進專注力,近來一項研究卻指出學習時伴隨有旋律的背景音可能會危害注意力,而那些沒有聽音樂的人表現得好很多。如果你還沒這樣做,把你的手機收起來!這件事不用我說你也知道,不過你的簡訊和社群媒體通知會大大降低專注力。

Of course, exams can be extremely stressful, so if you want some tips on how to deal with exam anxiety, check out our AsapTHOUGHT video which breaks down some tips for that. Link in the description. And a big thank you to TD Bank for sponsoring this video.
當然,考試可以帶來很大壓力,所以如果你想知道一些如何應付考試焦慮的技巧,去看看我們 AsapTHOUGHT 的影片,那會說明一些應付焦慮的妙招。連結網址在資訊欄中。另外非常感謝 TD 銀行贊助本影片。

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