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「就在今晚,68 年來最大的超級月亮!」- The Biggest Supermoon in 68 Years!


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If you've ever wanted to get up close and personal with the moon, you might wanna look up this Monday, because the moon will look larger and brighter than it has for decades.
如果你曾想親身貼近月亮,這個星期一你可能會想抬頭看一下,因為月亮看起來會比幾十年來的樣子更大更明亮。

The full moon on November 14 will be the largest supermoon since 1948—almost 70 years ago. Supermoons happen between four and six times a year, whenever the full moon happens around the same time as the closest point in its orbit, also known as its perigee. But this supermoon is special because the moon will be the closest it's been to Earth since that supermoon back in 1948.
11 月 14 日的滿月會是自 1948 年來最大的超級月亮--那是幾乎 70 年前的事了。超級月亮一年出現的次數在四到六次之間,每當滿月和軌道最近點約在同時間發生時就會出現,月球軌道離地球最近的點也稱作「近地點」。不過這個超級月亮很特別,因為這個月亮將是 1948 年那次超級月亮後最靠近地球的一個。

The moon's orbit is an ellipse, not a perfect circle, so that's part of the reason it's closer to Earth on some nights than on others. But the moon's perigee also changes a little from orbit to orbit because it's influenced by the gravitational pull of the sun. On average, the moon orbits about 384,400 kilometers away, and its closest point to Earth is usually somewhere between 357,000 and 370,000 kilometers away. But sometimes, the perigee dips below 357,000 kilometers. And Monday will be the biggest dip in decades—to 356,511 kilometers.
月亮運行的軌道是橢圓形,而非正圓形,那就是為什麼月亮在某些夜晚會比其它夜晚距離地球更近的部分原因。不過月亮的近地點在每次運行間會有些變化,因為那受太陽引力影響。通常,月亮在約 384,400 公里外運行,而它離地球最近的點一般會在大概 357,000 和 370,000 公里外。但有時,近地點距離會降到 357,000 公里以下。而星期一會是幾十年來最大幅度的下降--距離縮至 356,511 公里。

Plus, the full moon is happening within about two hours of that extra-close perigee. Since the moon will be so close, it will look up to 14 percent larger and 30 percent brighter than a full moon that's at the farthest point in its orbit. The moon won't be this close again until November 2034, when there'll be another extra-big supermoon.
另外,滿月會在那超近近地點出現的約兩個小時內發生。因為月亮如此靠近,它看起來的巨大程度和亮度會多出高達百分之十四和百分之三十,相較於一個在軌道最遠點的滿月。月亮要到 2034 年 11 月才會再次距離這麼近,到時會有另一個特大號超級月亮。

The moon will be exactly full at 1:52 p.m. Greenwich Mean Time, which translates to the early morning in the Americas and the afternoon in Europe. But the moon will be extra large and bright on both Sunday and Monday night, too. If you're in Asia or Australia, you're in luck, since the moon will reach its peak on Monday night. No matter where you are in the world, though, if there are clear skies, it's probably worth looking up.
月亮會在格林威治時間下午 1 點 52 分時完全滿月,那轉換過去就是美洲的清晨和歐洲的下午。但月亮在星期天和星期一晚上也會格外巨大明亮。如果你人在亞洲或澳洲,那你很幸運,因為月亮在星期一晚上會達到最大值。不過無論你在世界的哪裡,如果有清澈的天空,或許都值得抬頭一看。

And while we're watching the moon, the James Webb Space Telescope will be getting ready to observe the rest of the universe. Webb has been in development for 20 years now, and it's finally in the homestretch. Last week, the telescope part of Webb was finished, which includes the mirrors and all the scientific instruments. So basically, all that's left to do before launch is some rigorous flight testing.
而在我們賞月的同時,詹姆斯‧韋伯太空望遠鏡將會準備好觀察宇宙其它角落。韋伯望遠鏡至今已經研發 20 年,而它終於來到最後階段。上週,韋伯的望遠鏡部分已經完成,那包含鏡組和所有科學儀器。所以基本上,發射前的工作只剩下一些嚴格的飛行測試。

Once it's launched, the telescope will mainly view the universe in infrared, the wavelength associated with heat. That will give us a whole new perspective, since the Hubble Space Telescope's range doesn't include several kinds of infrared light. Webb is also more sensitive than the Hubble, so it'll be able to give us lots of extra detail.
韋伯望遠鏡一發射出去後,它主要會以紅外線觀察宇宙,紅外線是種和溫度有關的波長。那將提供我們全新視野,因為哈伯太空望遠鏡的範圍並未包括好幾種紅外線光。韋伯太空望遠鏡也比哈伯更加敏銳,因此它能帶給我們更多額外資訊。

But even though construction on the telescope is over, it has to pass a whole bunch of tests before it can start its mission in space. Engineers have already completed a pretest to confirm that the telescope's optics are working—which they are. And because rocket launches are loud and pretty violent, they'll now put the telescope through sound and vibration tests to make sure it won't be damaged on the way into orbit. And if it survives these tests without damage, next up are cryogenic tests to make sure it can handle the super cold temperatures of space. Finally, the telescope will be shipped to California, where it'll be attached to the rest of the spacecraft: the sunshield to protect it from the heat of the sun, and the propulsion and communication systems.
但儘管望遠鏡的建構已經完成,在可以開始進行太空任務前,韋伯還是得經過一連串測試。工程師們已經做好一項預試來確認望遠鏡的光學設備正常運作--它們的確運作正常。而因為火箭的發射過程聲音很大又頗為劇烈,他們現在要讓望遠鏡通過聲音和振動測試,確保它不會在進到軌道的途中損毀。如果韋伯望遠鏡毫髮無傷地撐過這些測驗,下一步會是低溫測驗,確認它能應付太空中的極低溫度。最後,望遠鏡會被運到加州,它將在那被裝到太空船其餘的部分上:遮陽板保護它免受太陽熱度損害,還有推進及通訊系統。

After the last few tests wrap up, the completed spacecraft will be shipped to French Guiana to launch aboard the European Ariane 5 rocket. If everything goes as planned, the James Webb Space Telescope will launch in October 2018.
在最後幾個測試結束後,完成版的太空船會被運到法屬圭亞那,裝載到歐洲亞利安 5 號火箭上發射。如果一切如期進行,詹姆斯‧韋伯太空望遠鏡將在 2018 年 10 月發射。

With Webb, we're hoping to learn about a lot of different things, like the oldest galaxies in the universe, other star systems, and even worlds closer to home, like Jupiter's moon Europa. So whether you're watching for the greatest supermoon in almost 70 years or waiting for the world's best space telescope, you can expect a beautiful view of space coming your way soon.
有了韋伯望遠鏡,我們期望能了解更多不同的事,像是宇宙中最古老的銀河、其它星系,甚至是了解離家鄉更近的世界,像是木星的衛星「木衛二」。所以不管你是在期盼快七十年來最大的超級月亮,還是在等候全世界最出色的太空望遠鏡,你都可以預料很快就會有美麗的太空景色和你見面。

Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Space News, and thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon who help make this show possible. If you wanna help us keep making episodes like this, you can go to patreon.com/scishow. And don't forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.
感謝你收看這集太空科學秀新聞,另外還要特別感謝我們在 Patreon 平台上的贊助者們幫助我們讓這節目成為可能。如果你想協助我們繼續製作像這集一樣的節目,你可以到 patreon.com/scishow。也別忘了到 youtube.com/scishowspace 然後訂閱喔。

  • 「平均、通常」- On Average

    On average, the moon orbits about 384,400 kilometers away...
    通常,月亮在約 384,400 公里外運行...

  • 「幸運」- In Luck

    If you're in Asia or Australia, you're in luck, since the moon will reach its peak on Monday night.
    如果你人在亞洲或澳洲,那你很幸運,因為月亮在星期一晚上會達到最大值。

  • 「接下來」- Next Up

    And if it survives these tests without damage, next up are cryogenic tests to make sure it can handle the super cold temperatures of space.
    如果韋伯望遠鏡毫髮無傷地撐過這些測驗,下一步會是低溫測驗,確認它能應付太空中的極低溫度。

  • 「結束、完成」- Wrap Up

    After the last few tests wrap up, the completed spacecraft will be shipped to French Guiana to launch aboard the European Ariane 5 rocket.
    在最後幾個測試結束後,完成版的太空船會被運到法屬圭亞那,裝載到歐洲亞利安 5 號火箭上發射。

  • 「發生、降到某人身上」- Come One's Way

    ...you can expect a beautiful view of space coming your way soon.
    ...你都可以預料很快就會有美麗的太空景色和你見面。

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