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「蜘蛛人的超能力解析」- The Science of Superheroes: SPIDER-MAN


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Spider-man has some pretty sweet abilities, but let us take a scientific look to see how well this superhero stacks up to reality.
蜘蛛人有一些很讚的能力,但讓我們從科學的角度來看看這位超級英雄有多麼符合現實。

For spider-man to become genetically modified, the spider that bit him would have to release a retrovirus into his body. Retroviruses carry genetic information which gets inserted into the DNA of cells. The cell then reads the new DNA to create specific functions and proteins for that cell. But this retrovirus would have to make its way to nearly every cell and have the ability to code for new and different functions in each cell. So while it is theoretically possible, it would also be pretty "amazing".
為了修改蜘蛛人的基因,咬他的蜘蛛必須在他身體中釋放出一種逆轉濾過性病毒。逆轉濾過性病毒攜帶著基因資訊,它被嵌入細胞DNA裡面。然後細胞讀取新的DNA而為其產生特殊功能和蛋白質。然而這逆轉濾過性病毒幾乎得散布到每一個細胞,而且還得要有能力在每個細胞中為新的、不同的功能編碼。所以儘管理論上來說是有可能的,它仍然非常「神奇」。

Silk, it is actually proportionately stronger and more flexible than steel. Spiderwebs, one tenth the size of a piece of hair are able to catch insects flying upwards of fifteen miles an hour. And, believe it or not, if a web were an inch thick in diameter it could actually stop a fighter jet.
蜘蛛絲,其實以比例來說它比鋼鐵還堅固且更有彈性。蜘蛛網,尺寸是頭髮的十分之一,可以抓住以十五英里(二十四公里)時速向上飛的昆蟲。而且,信不信由你,如果蜘蛛網有一英吋(2.54公分)直徑(的絲),它其實可以攔下一架噴射戰鬥機。

Strength, some spiders can lift up to fifty times their body weight, this muscle strength is directly related to size. Think about your biceps, when you work out, it increases in height and width, but not length. In this way, the strength of an organism increases as a square, or by two on the scale factor. But as organisms get bigger, their volume increases by height, width and length, as a cube, or a three on the scale factor. This creates a ratio of two to three, meaning the bigger the organism, the smaller its proportional strength.
力量,有些蜘蛛能夠舉起自身重量的五十倍,這樣的肌力跟尺寸有直接的關係。想想看你的二頭肌,當你健身時,它會增加高度和寬度,而不是長度。這樣一來,生物的力量是以二次方,或是二度空間比例尺增長。但是當生物變大,它們的體積在高度、寬度和長度上以三次方,或是三度空間比例尺增長。這造成了一個二比三的比例,意思是生物越大,相對的力量就越小。

But because Spider-man is human shaped and sized, the retrovirus would have to encode for the creation of more actin and myosin proteins. These proteins effect the contraction abilities of muscles, and in effect could make a human stronger.
但因為蜘蛛人有人的外型和尺寸,這逆轉濾過性病毒必須要編碼創造出更多肌動和肌凝蛋白。這些蛋白實現肌肉的收縮能力,還能有效地強化人體。

Climbing walls? Not a problem for spiders, they have tiny hairs on each leg, and these hairs have tons of even smaller hairs with triangular ends, which interact within nanometers of the atoms on the surface. This creates electrostatic forces, allowing them to stick with strength of one hundred and seventy times their own weight. To capture this ability, Spider-man would need permanently hairy hands and feet, which may not overly impress his damsels in distress.
爬牆?對蜘蛛來說是小菜一碟,它們每隻腳上都有細毛,而這些毛上還有無數的、更細的、帶著三角形末端的毛,它們會和物體表面上幾奈米大小範圍內的原子互動。這會產生靜電力,讓它們得以自身重量一百七十倍的力量黏附上去。想要獲得這能力,蜘蛛人需要永久存在的「毛手毛腳」,這也許不會讓他那等待救援的少女產生太多好感。

And finally, what about the Spidey Sense? Well, spider hairs are extremely sensitive to vibration and air pressure changes. But this means that spider-man could only perceive things that are near him, and not events at a distance.

而最後,「蜘蛛預感」怎麼辦?嗯,蜘蛛毛對震動和氣壓的改變極度敏感。但這意味著蜘蛛人應該僅能感知到身邊的東西,而不是遠方的事件。

Got a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments, or on facebook and twitter, and subscribe for weekly science videos.
你有燃眉之急的問題想要答案嗎?在留言中發問吧,或在facebook和twitter上發問,並訂閱以獲得更多的每周科學影片。

  • 「健身」- Work Out

    Think about your biceps, when you work out, it increases in height and width, but not length.
    想想看你的二頭肌,當你健身時,它會增加高度和寬度,而不是長度。

  • 「有效、實際上」- In Effect

    These proteins effect the contraction abilities of muscles, and "in effect" could make a human stronger.
    這些蛋白實現肌肉的收縮能力,還能有效地強化人體。

  • 「等待拯救的少女」- A Damsel In Distress

    To capture this ability, Spider-man would need permanently hairy hands and feet, which may not overly impress his damsels in distress.
    想要獲得這能力,蜘蛛人需要永久存在的「毛手毛腳」,這也許不會讓他那等待救援的少女產生太多好感。

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