使用chrome瀏覽器,輕鬆學英文。

如有任何問題,歡迎聯絡我們

希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中
希平方
攻其不背
App 開放下載中

「健康新知:人人都有的癌症基因」- The Cancer Gene We All Have


框選或點兩下字幕可以直接查字典喔!

Cancer is like a car crash. Your body typically regulates the speed at which your cells divide, but sometimes, cancer cuts the brake lines and your cells divide too quickly, accumulating mutations that cause them to veer away from their original function, form dangerous tumors, and land you in the hospital.
癌症就像一場車禍。你的身體通常會調節你細胞分裂的速度,但有時,癌症切斷了煞車線,你的細胞分裂得太快,累積突變,那突變導致它們偏離它們原先的功能、形成有害的腫瘤、並讓你進醫院。

Cancer is basically an inability of the body to control the speed at which cells divide. When cells divide too quickly, they can often accumulate mutations that cause them to ignore their original function in the body, forming tumors. In turn, these tumors may interfere with the natural processes of the body, such as digestion and respiration, potentially leading to death.
癌症基本上是身體無法控制細胞分裂的速度。當細胞分裂太快,它們通常可以累積突變,那使它們忽略它們在體內最初的功能,形成腫瘤。這些腫瘤可能會依次地妨礙體內的自然機制,像是消化及呼吸,可能會導致死亡。

Typically, your body has a number of genetic mechanisms to control how fast your cells divide. One of these genes is BRCA1, which stands for breast cancer susceptibility gene 1. BRCA1 belongs to a class of genes called tumor suppressor genes.
一般而言,你的身體有數個控制你的細胞分裂多快的基因機制。這些基因之一是BRCA1,代表乳癌易感基因1。BRCA1屬於名為腫瘤抑制基因的一種基因。

Tumor suppressor genes are involved in regulating how fast a cell divides. Normally, cell division follows an orderly process called the cell cycle, which is basically the life cycle of a cell. Within the cell cycle is a series of checkpoints, where proteins, such as the one produced by BRCA1, regulate how fast the cell may proceed.
腫瘤抑制基因牽涉到調節細胞分裂得多快。普通來說,細胞分裂是接在一個叫做細胞週期的有條理的過程之後,這基本上就是細胞的生命週期。在細胞週期中是一系列的關卡,在這些關卡中,蛋白質,像是BRCA1產生的那種,會調節細胞可能會進行得多快。

How does it do this? BRCA1 helps repair some forms of mutation in your DNA. If your DNA is damaged, BRCA1 keeps the cell from dividing until the mutation is repaired. You have two copies of the BRCA1 gene in every cell of your body: one copy you inherited from Mom, the other from Dad. This redundancy is a good thing because you only need one functioning BRCA1 gene in a cell to regulate the cell cycle.
它怎麼做到的?BRCA1協助修復你DNA中某些形式的突變。如果你的DNA受損,BRCA1會阻止那細胞分裂,直到突變經過修復。你在體內的每個細胞中有兩段BRCA1的複製基因:一個從母親那遺傳的複製基因,另一個從父親來的。此類重複是件好事,因為你細胞裡只需要一個能夠行使作用的BRCA1來調節細胞週期。

But it's important to note that while these copies have a similar function, they're not necessarily the same. In fact, there are hundreds of variations, or alleles, of BRCA1. Some regulate the cell cycle more effectively than others. In other words, some people are born with better regulating and repair mechanisms than others. And in some cases, mutations may render BRCA1 ineffective.
但很重要的是要注意到,雖然這些複製基因有相似的功能,但它們不必然是相同的。事實上,有數百種BRCA1的變化,或是其對偶基因。有些比其它能更有效率地調節細胞週期。換句話說,有些人生來就比其它人擁有較佳的調節及修復機制。在某些案例中,突變可能會使BRCA1無法行使作用。

When this happens, cells with damaged DNA are allowed to divide. As they divide, these cells may accumulate additional mutations. These mutations may cause the cell to become less specialized and stop performing its original function in the tissue. If this occurs, then there's a greater chance they'll develop into cancer cells.
當此情況發生時,帶有受損DNA的細胞獲准分裂。當它們分裂時,這些細胞可能會累積額外的突變。這些突變可能會導致細胞變得較不專精,停止行使其原先在組織裡的功能。如果此情況出現,那麼有更多的機會它們會發展為癌細胞。

While we all have the gene, such as BRCA1, that can cause cancer, it's only when these genes fail at their function that problems develop. Having an ineffective or mutated version of BRCA1 can increase your susceptibility to cancer, much like driving with bad brakes increases the risk of an accident.
雖然我們全都擁有那可以導致癌症的基因,像是BRCA1,只有當這些基因無法行使它們的功能時,這些問題才會形成。擁有失去作用或是突變版本的BRCA1會增加你得到癌症的敏感度,大概就像帶著壞掉的煞車駕駛會增加意外的風險。

  • 「依次、輪流」- In Turn

    In turn, these tumors may interfere with the natural processes of the body, such as digestion and respiration, potentially leading to death.
    這些腫瘤可能會依次地妨礙體內的自然機制,像是消化及呼吸,可能會導致死亡。

  • 「導致」- Lead To

    In turn, these tumors may interfere with the natural processes of the body, such as digestion and respiration, potentially leading to death.
    這些腫瘤可能會依次地妨礙體內的自然機制,像是消化及呼吸,可能會導致死亡。

  • 「屬於」- Belong To

    BRCA1 belongs to a class of genes called tumor suppressor genes.
    BRCA1屬於名為腫瘤抑制基因的一種基因。

  • 「換句話說」- In Other Words

    In other words, some people are born with better regulating and repair mechanisms than others.
    換句話說,有些人生來就比其它人擁有較佳的調節及修復機制。

播放本句

登入使用學習功能

使用Email登入

HOPE English 播放器使用小提示

  • 功能簡介

    單句重覆、上一句、下一句:顧名思義,以句子為單位重覆播放,單句重覆鍵顯示橘色時為重覆播放狀態;顯示灰色時為正常播放狀態。按上一句鍵、下一句鍵時就會自動重覆播放該句。
    收錄佳句:點擊可增減想收藏的句子。

    中、英文字幕開關:中、英文字幕按鍵為綠色為開啟,灰色為關閉。鼓勵大家搞懂每一句的內容以後,關上字幕聽聽看,會發現自己好像在聽中文說故事一樣,會很有成就感喔!
    收錄單字:用滑鼠框選英文單字可以收藏不會的單字。
  • 分享
    如果您覺得本篇短片很有趣或很喜歡,在短片結束時有分享連結,可以分享給朋友一同欣賞,一起看YouTube學英文!

    或是您有收錄很優秀的句子時,也可以分享佳句給大家,一同看佳句學英文!