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「人權的故事」- The Story of Human Rights


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Human rights...it's a... Jeez, that's a good question.
人權...它是...老天,那是個好問題。

Human rights...that's a tough one.
人權...那是個很難的問題。

Wow...umm...
哇...嗯...

Human rights?
人權?

I don't even know how to give that a definition.
我甚至不知道該怎麼給它下一個定義。

I would probably have to do a little bit of homework or something.
我可能要先做一點功課之類的。

Any right that I think any...just as a normal...you know...uh...human, any...
任何權利...我覺得任何...就像個一般的...你知道的...嗯...人類,任何...

The rights that humans have?
人類所擁有的權利?

uh...
嗯...

Wow, that's a really large...debate.
哇,那是個非常重大的...爭議。

Human rights can mean many things.
人權可代表很多東西。

You can ask twenty people, and you will get different opinions.
你可以問二十個人,而你會得到不同意見。

I wouldn't know...it is a complicated question.
我無從得知...這是個很複雜的問題。

It is difficult, isn't it?
很困難,是吧?

We just take it for granted. They are there, but we don't even consider what they are.
我們把它視為理所當然,它們存在那裡,但我們甚至沒有去思考它們是什麼。

(Human: A member of the homo sapiens species; a man, a woman and a child; a person.)
(人類:智人種的一員;一個男人、女人、小孩;一個人。)

(Rights: Things to which you are entitled or allowed; freedoms that are guaranteed.)
(權利:你被賦權或允許的事情;被保證的自由。)

Human rights are the rights you have simply because you're human. It's how you instinctively expect and deserve to be treated as a person, like the right to live freely, to speak your mind and to be treated as an equal.
人權是一種就只因為你是人類而擁有的權利。它是你身為一個人,本能地盼望且應得的權利,像是自由地活著、表達主見以及被平等地對待的權利。

There are many kinds of rights. Most apply to a certain group, but human rights are the only ones that apply to absolutely everyone, everywhere. That means kids, old people, poor people, basketball player, garbageman, rappers, teachers, Africans, Indians, Albanians, Christians, Muslims, Kabbalahs, atheist, your mom, your dad, your next-door neighbor, and you, all have the exact same human rights. In other words, they're universal. But the question remains: What are they?
權利有很多種。大多數適用在某個特定群體,但人權是唯一完全適用於每個人、每個地方的一個。那代表小孩、老人、窮人、籃球選手、清潔隊員、饒舌歌手、老師、非洲人、印度人、阿爾巴尼亞人、基督徒、穆斯林、卡巴拉教義派、無神論者、你母親、你父親、你隔壁的鄰居、還有你,都擁有完全相同的人權。換句話說,他們是全球一致的。但是問題還在:它們是什麼?

Name human...the human rights?
列舉人...人權?

What the human rights are? Um...
人權是什麼?嗯...

The right to live...Uh...
生存的權利...嗯...

Equality between all peoples...
所有種族間的平等...

The right to religion, the right to...
宗教信仰的權利,有權...

Is there supposed to be a list somewhere I should be aware of?
某個地方應該有個我該知道的清單?

According to United Nations, there are total a thirty human rights, which are usually lumped together and called simply human rights. They're all listed out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is the world's most widely accepted documents on the subject. But it was a long time coming.
根據聯合國,有個總共三十項的人權,這些權利通常會被歸併在一起,並且就很直白的被稱為人權。它們都被列出在「世界人權宣言」中,這宣言是針對人權這個議題,世界上最廣為採納的一份文件。但它早該出現了。

At first, there were no human rights. If you were in with the right crowd, you were safe; if you weren't, well...you weren't.
一開始,並沒有人權。如果你加入了對的群體,你就是安全的;如果你沒有,嗯...你就不安全。

But then a guy named Cyrus the Great, decided to change all that. After conquering Babylon, he did something completely revolutionary. He announced that all slaves were free to go. He also said, "People had the freedom to choose their religion, no matter what crowd that they were a part of." They documented his words on a clay tablet, known as the Cyrus Cylinder. And just like that, human rights were born.
但接著有個叫居魯士大帝的人,決定要改變那一切。在征服巴比倫後,他做了某件完全革命性的事。他宣布所有的奴隸都自由了。他還說:「人們有自由去選擇他們的宗教信仰,不管他們是屬於哪一個群體。」人們把他的話紀錄在一個泥碑上,稱為「居魯士銘筒」。而就這樣,人權誕生了。

The ideas spread quickly...to Greece, to India, and eventually to Rome. They noticed that people naturally followed certain laws, even if they weren't told to. They called this "Natural Law," but it kept getting trampled on by those in power. Not until a thousand years later in England, do they finally get a king to agree that no one can overrule the rights to people, not even a king. People's rights were finally recognized, and they were now safe from those in power...kind of.
這個觀念散播的非常快...到希臘,到印度,而最終到羅馬。他們發現到人們自然的遵循特定的規範,即使他們並沒有被要求要這麼做。他們稱此為「自然律」, 但它卻一直被當權者給踐踏。直到一千年後,在英國,他們最終才真正獲得一位國王同意沒有人可以否決人民的權利,即使是一位國王也不行。人民的權利終於受到認可,而這些權利現在不再遭受當權者迫害...大概吧。

It still took a bunch of British rebels declaring their independence before the king got the point that all men are created equal, which isn't to say he liked the idea, but he couldn't stop that...and America was born.
在國王瞭解到所有人皆生而平等之前,仍靠了一堆英國反抗份子宣示他們自己的獨立,那並不是說國王喜歡這個概念,而是他無法阻止那個...於是美國誕生了。

The French immediately followed with their own revolution for their own rights. Their list was even longer, and they insisted that these rights weren't just "made up." They were natural. The Roman concept of "Natural Law," had become "Natural Rights."
為了他們自已的權利,法國人隨即跟進以他們自己的革命。他們的人權清單甚至更長,而且他們堅持這些權利並不只是「捏造出來的」。它們是自然存在的。羅馬「自然律」的概念,演變為「自然權利」。

Unfortunately, not everyone were so thrilled. In France, a general named Napoleon decided to overthrow the new French Democracy and crown himself Emperor...of the world. He almost succeeded, but the countries of Europe joined forces and defeated him. Human Rights was again a hot topic.
很不幸的,並不是每個人都如此興奮。在法國,有一個叫拿破崙的將軍決定推翻新的法國民主,並且加冕自己為王...世界之王。他幾乎成功了,但是歐洲國家聯合起來並打敗了他。人權再度成為一個眾所關切的話題。

They drew up international agreement, broadly granting many rights across Europe. But...only across Europe. The rest of the world somehow still didn't qualify. Instead, they got invaded, conquered and consumed by Europe's massive empires.
他們起草了國際協定,在全歐洲廣泛授與許多權利。但...僅在歐洲。世界上其他的國家不知怎地仍然不合格。反之,他們被歐洲的大帝國給侵略、征服然後併吞掉了。

But then a young lawyer from India decided "enough was enough." His name was Mahatma Gandhi. And in the face of violence, he insisted that all people of Earth have rights, not just in Europe. Eventually, even Europeans started to agree. But it wasn't gonna be that easy.
但後來一位來自印度的年輕律師決意「真是受夠了」。他的名字叫做甘地。而面對暴力,他堅持地球上所有人都有權利,不是只有在歐洲。最後,甚至歐洲人都開始同意。但這並沒有那麼簡單。

Two World Wars erupted. Hitler exterminated half the Jewish population of Earth in horrifying Nazi death camps. Now told ninety million people died. Never had human rights been so terrifyingly close to extinction, and never had the world been more desperate for change.
兩次世界大戰爆發。希特勒在恐怖的納粹死亡集中營裡滅絕了地球上一半的猶太人口。現在據說有九千萬人死亡。人權從來沒有這麼可怕地接近滅絕,而世界也從來沒有更加地渴望改變。

So the countries of Earth banded together and formed the United Nations. Their basic purpose was "To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person." But what were "Human Rights?"
於是地球上的國家團結在一起,組成了聯合國。其基本目的為「在人類個人的尊嚴及價值下,重申基本人權的信念。」但到底什麼是「人權」呢?

Were they the proclamation of Cyrus, the Natural Laws of Rome or the Declarations of France? Everyone seemed to have a slightly different idea of what "human rights" should be. But under the supervision of Eleanor Roosevelt, they finally agreed on a set of rights that apply to absolutely everyone: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The French concept of "Natural Rights" had finally become "Human Rights."
它們是居魯士的宣言,羅馬人的「自然律」還是法國的「獨立宣言」呢?每個人似乎對「人權」應該是什麼都有稍微不同的見解。但在羅斯福的監督下,他們終於同意了一系列完全適用每個人的權利:世界人權宣言。法國的「自然權利」概念最終變成了「人權」。

So, in summary, at first, only a few lucky people had any rights. Until one of those guys decided, "hey, other people should have some rights too," which was great...except not everyone agreed. And it only took a few thousand years of fighting and declarations, and more fighting, until everyone finally agreed that human rights should apply to everyone. And they all lived happily ever after...except for one little problem.
所以,總而言之,一開始,只有幾個幸運兒擁有任何權利。直到其中一個人決定:「嘿,其他的人也應該要有點權利。」這很好...只是不是每個人都同意。而僅花了數千年的鬥爭和宣告,以及更多的鬥爭,直到大家最終同意人權應該用在每個人身上。而他們全部都從此過著幸福快樂的日子...除了一個小問題以外。

If people have the right to food and shelter, why are sixteen thousand children dying of starvation everyday? One every five seconds. If people have freedom of speech, why are thousands in prison for speaking their minds? If people have the right to education, why are over a billion adults unable to read? If slavery has truly been abolished, why are twenty-seven million people still in slave today? More than twice as many as in 1800.
如果人們有温飽及居住的權利,為何每天有一萬六千名孩童餓死呢?每五秒一名。如果人們有言論自由,為何有幾千人因為說出他們的想法而遭囚禁呢?如果人們有受教育的權利,為何超過十億的成人無法閱讀呢?如果奴隸制度真的被廢除了,為何兩千七百萬人至今仍受奴役呢?這比西元1800年的兩倍還多。

The fact is, when it was signed, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights did not have the force of law. It was optional. And despite many more documents, conventions, treaties and laws, it's still little more than the words on a page. So the question is who will make those words a reality?
事實是,當世界人權宣言被簽署的時候,它並沒有法律的強制性。它是選擇性的。儘管有再多的文件、會議、協議和法律,它仍不過是紙張上的幾個字詞。所以問題就是,誰會讓那些文字實現呢?

"I have a dream today."
「我今天有個夢想。」

When Dr. King marched for racial equality, he was marching for rights that had been guaranteed by the United Nations for almost two decades. But still he marched. When Nelson Mandela stood up for social justice in the 1990s, his country had already agreed to abolish such discrimination for almost forty years. But still he fought.
當金恩博士為種族平等遊行時,他是為早已受聯合國保證幾乎二十年的權利而遊行。但他還是上街了。西元1990年代,當曼德拉為社會正義挺身而出時,他的國家已經同意廢除如此的歧視幾乎四十年了。但他還是挺身而戰。

Those who fight today against torture, poverty and discrimination are not giants or superheros. They're people: kids, mothers, fathers, teachers, free thinking individuals who refuse to be silent, who realize that "Human Rights" are not history lessons. They are not words on a page. They are not speeches or commercials or PR campaigns. They are the choices we make everyday as a human beings. They are the responsibility we all share to respect each other, to help each other and to protect those in need.
現今那些對抗折磨、貧窮以及歧視的人不是偉人或是超級英雄。他們是一般人:孩子、母親、父親、老師、自由思考並拒絕保持沉默的個體,他們了解「人權」不是歷史課。它們不是紙本上的字句。它們不是演講或商業廣告或是公關活動。它們是我們身為人類每天要做的選擇。它們是我們大家為了互相尊重、互相幫助及保護那些身處危難之中的人,所共同負擔的責任。

As Eleanor Roosevelt said, "Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places close to home-so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. Yet they are the world of the individual person; the neighborhood he lives in; the school or college he attends; the factory, farm or office where he works. Such are the places where every man, woman and child, seeks equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity without discrimination. Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere."
如同羅斯福所說:「究竟世界人權是從何處開始的呢?在家園附近的小地方 - 如此的貼近又如此的微小,以至於它們無法在任何世界地圖上被看到。然而它們是由個人組成的世界;是他所居住的街坊;是他就讀的學校或學院;是他工作的工廠、農場或辦公室。這些是每個男人、女人跟小孩,不受歧視地追求平等正義、平等機會以及平等尊嚴的地方。除非這些權利在那兒有意義,否則它們在其他地方幾乎沒有意義。」

(Know Your Rights)
(了解你的權利)

  • 「視為理所當然」- Take It For Granted

    We just "take it for granted". They are there, but we don't even consider what they are.
    我們把它視為理所當然,它們存在那裡,但我們甚至沒有去思考它們是什麼。

  • 「表達主見、表達自己的想法」- Speak Your Mind

    It's how you instinctively expect and deserve to be treated as a person, like the right to live freely, to "speak your mind" and to be treated as an equal.
    它是你身為一個人,本能地盼望且應得的權利,像是自由地活著、表達主見以及被平等地對待的權利。

  • 「應該」- Supposed To

    Is there "supposed to" be a list somewhere I should be aware of?
    某個地方應該有個我該知道的清單?

  • 「歸併、一併、混為一談」- Lump Together

    According to United Nations, there are total a thirty human rights, which are usually "lumped together" and called simply human rights.
    根據聯合國,有個總共三十項的人權,這些權利通常會被歸併在一起,並且就很直白的被稱為人權。

  • 「早該出現了、有一段時間了」- A Long Time Coming

    They're all listed out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is the world's most widely accepted documents on the subject. But it was "a long time coming".
    它們都被列出在「世界人權宣言」中,這宣言是針對人權這個議題,世界上最廣為採納的一份文件。但它早該出現了。

  • 「踐踏、蹂躪」- Trample On

    They called this "Natural Law," but it kept getting "trampled on" by those in power.
    他們稱此為「自然律」, 但它卻一直被當權者給踐踏。

  • 「大概吧、有點是吧」- Kind Of

    People's rights were finally recognized, and they were now safe from those in power..."kind of".
    人民的權利終於受到認可,而這些權利現在不再遭受當權者迫害…大概吧。

  • 「一堆、一群、一串」- A Bunch Of

    It still took "a bunch of" British rebels declaring their independence before the king got the point that all men are created equal,
    在國王瞭解到所有人皆生而平等之前,仍靠了一堆英國反抗份子宣示他們自己的獨立,

  • 「瞭解、抓到重點」- Get The Point

    It still took a bunch of British rebels declaring their independence before the king "got the point" that all men are created equal,
    在國王瞭解到所有人皆生而平等之前,仍靠了一堆英國反抗份子宣示他們自己的獨立,

  • 「聯合起來、合作會戰」- Join Forces

    He almost succeeded, but the countries of Europe "joined forces" and defeated him.
    他幾乎成功了,但是歐洲國家聯合起來並打敗了他。

  • 「起草、制定」- Draw Up

    They "drew up" international agreement, broadly granting many rights across Europe.
    他們起草了國際協定,在全歐洲廣泛授與許多權利。

  • 「面對、縱然」- In The Face Of

    And "in the face of" violence, he insisted that all people of Earth have rights, not just in Europe.
    而面對暴力,他堅持地球上所有人都有權利,不是只有在歐洲。

  • 「同意、取得一致意見」- Agree On

    But under the supervision of Eleanor Roosevelt, they finally "agreed on" a set of rights that apply to absolutely everyone: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    但在羅斯福的監督下,他們終於同意了一系列完全適用每個人的權利:世界人權宣言。

  • 「除了、要不是因為」- Except For

    And they all lived happily ever after..."except for" one little problem.
    而他們全部都從此過著幸福快樂的日子…除了一個小問題以外。

  • 「挺身而出、捍衛」- Stand Up For

    When Nelson Mandela "stood up for" social justice in the 1990s, his country had already agreed to abolish such discrimination for almost forty years.
    當曼德拉為社會正義挺身而出時,他的國家已經同意廢除如此的歧視幾乎四十年了。

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